Neck and shoulder pain is frequent in adolescents, and multiple factors seem to affect the risk of such symptoms. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of neck and shoulder pain in Norwegian adolescence and to examine whether behavioral and emotional factors were associated with the risk of neck and shoulder pain. Finally we aimed to investigate whether neck and shoulder pain was related to the use of health services.
Data from the population-based study ung@hordaland were used. Participants were asked how often during the last 6 months they had experienced neck and shoulder pain. The association between frequent neck and shoulder pain and physical activity, symptoms of depression, and screen-based activities was evaluated using logistic regression analyses stratified by gender. The relative risk of visiting health services when reporting neck and shoulder pain was calculated using multiple logistic regression analyses.
Frequent neck and shoulder pain was reported by 20.0% (1,797 of the total 8,990) and more often by girls than boys (p
Sedentary behavior is considered a separate construct from physical activity and engaging in sedentary behaviors results in health effects independent of physical activity levels. A major source of sedentary behavior in children is time spent viewing TV or movies, playing video games, and using computers. To date no study has examined the impact of neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) on pre-school children's screen time behavior.
Proxy reports of weekday and weekend screen time (TV/movies, video games, and computer use) were completed by 1633 parents on their 4-5 year-old children in Edmonton, Alberta between November, 2005 and August, 2007. Postal codes were used to classified neighborhoods into low, medium or high SES. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were conducted to examine relationships between screen time and neighborhood SES.
Girls living in low SES neighborhoods engaged in significantly more weekly overall screen time and TV/movie minutes compared to girls living in high SES neighborhoods. The same relationship was not observed in boys. Children living in low SES neighborhoods were significantly more likely to be video game users and less likely to be computer users compared to children living in high SES neighborhoods. Also, children living in medium SES neighborhoods were significantly less likely to be computer users compared to children living in high SES neighborhoods.
Some consideration should be given to providing alternative activity opportunities for children, especially girls who live in lower SES neighborhoods. Also, future research should continue to investigate the independent effects of neighborhood SES on screen time as well as the potential mediating variables for this relationship.
Excessive engagement in screen time has several immediate and long-term health implications among pre-school children. However, little is known about the factors that influence screen time in this age group. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to use the Ecologic Model of Sedentary Behavior as a guide to examine associations between intrapersonal, interpersonal, and physical environment factors within the home setting and screen time among pre-school children.
Participants were 746 pre-school children (= 5?years old) from the Kingston, Ontario, Canada area. From May to September, 2011, parents completed a questionnaire regarding several intrapersonal (child demographics), interpersonal (family demographics, parental cognitions, parental behavior), and physical environment (television, computer, or video games in the bedroom) factors within the home setting. Parents also reported the average amount of time per day their child spent watching television and playing video/computer games. Associations were examined using linear and logistic regression models.
Most participants (93.7%) watched television and 37.9% played video/computer games. Several intrapersonal, interpersonal, and physical environment factors within the home setting were associated with screen time. More specifically, age, parental attitudes, parental barriers, parental descriptive norms, parental screen time, and having a television in the bedroom were positive predictors of screen time; whereas, parental education, parental income, and parental self-efficacy were negative predictors of screen time in the linear regression analysis. Collectively these variables explained 64.2% of the variance in screen time. Parental cognitive factors (self-efficacy, attitudes, barriers, descriptive norms) at the interpersonal level explained a large portion (37.9%) of this variance.
A large proportion of screen time in pre-school children was explained by factors within the home setting. Parental cognitive factors at the interpersonal level were of particular relevance. These findings suggest that interventions aiming to foster appropriate screen time habits in pre-school children may be most effective if they target parents for behavioral change.
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There has been an increase in screen-based communication, leading to concerns about the negative health effects of screen-based activities in children and adolescents. The present study aimed to (1) analyze changes in screen time activity in Norwegian children from 2001 to 2008, and (2) to analyze associations between the changes in screen time activity over time and sex, grade level and parental educational level.
Within the project Fruits and Vegetables Make the Marks (FVMM), 1488 6th and 7th grade pupils from 27 Norwegian elementary schools completed a questionnaire including a question about time spent on television viewing and personal computer use in 2001 and 1339 pupils from the same schools completed the same questionnaire in 2008. Data were analyzed by multilevel linear mixed models.
The proportions of 6th and 7th grade pupils at the 27 schools that reported screen time activity outside school of 2 hours/day or more decreased from 55% to 45% (p
This article examines factors associated with children aged 4 to 11 becoming and remaining active, and how this differed according to their weight.
The data are from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth: cycle 1 (1994/95) for the cross-sectional analysis, and cycles 1, 2 and 3 (1994/95 to 1998/99) for the longitudinal analysis.
Estimates of physical activity levels in 1994/95 among acceptable-weight and overweight/obese children are presented by age, sex and selected activities (TV viewing, playing computer/video games, and hours of physical education at school). Logistic regression models were constructed for children who were inactive in 1994/95, focusing on the selected activities as predictors of adopting and maintaining an active lifestyle.
Factors associated with children adopting and maintaining an active lifestyle differed, depending on their weight. For overweight/obese children, but not for acceptable-weight children, a relatively high number of physical education hours was predictive of becoming physically active, while frequent TV viewing lowered the odds.
To examine how clusters of energy balance-related behaviours (EBRBs), including sleep related factors, were associated with overweight among adolescents.
In Finland, 4262 adolescents, aged 13-15, participated in the cross-national Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. The adolescents completed questionnaires assessing EBRBs [sleep duration, discrepancy and quality, physical activity (PA), screen time, junk food, fruit, and vegetable intake] and height and weight. Clusters were identified with ?-means cluster analysis and their associations with overweight with logistic regression analyses.
Common clusters for boys and girls were labelled "Healthy lifestyle" and "High screen time, unhealthy lifestyle". In addition, the cluster "Low/moderate screen time, unhealthy lifestyle" was identified among boys, and the cluster "Poor sleep, unhealthy lifestyle" among girls. Only girls in the cluster "High screen time, unhealthy lifestyle" were at increased risk for overweight.
Girls, whose EBRB was characterized by high screen time and low PA, but not with poor sleep, were at increased risk for overweight. Future studies should examine ways to promote PA among adolescent girls with high interest in screen-based activities.
To develop evidence-based interventions promoting healthy active lifestyles among young children and their parents, a greater understanding is needed of the correlates of physical activity and screen time in these dyads. Physical environment features within neighborhoods may have important influences on both children and their parents. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between several features of the physical environment with physical activity and screen time among 511 young children (=5 years old) and their parents, after adjusting for socio-demographic factors.
From May to September, 2011, parents of 0-5 year old children from Kingston, Canada completed a questionnaire that assessed socio-demographic characteristics, their physical activity and screen time, and their child's physical activity and screen time. Guided by a previously developed conceptual framework, several physical environment features were assessed using Geographic Information Systems including, function (walkability), safety (road speed), aesthetics (streetscape), and destination (outdoor play/activity space, recreation facilities, distance to closest park, yard at home). Multilevel linear regression analyses were used to examine the relationships while adjusting for several socio-demographic factors.
The only independent association observed for the physical environment features was between higher outdoor play/activity space and higher screen time levels among parents. Several associations were observed with socio-demographic variables. For physical activity, child age, child care status, and family socioeconomic status (SES) were independent correlates for children while sex was an independent correlate for parents. For screen time, child age and family SES were independent correlates for children while neighborhood SES was an independent correlate for parents.
The findings suggest that socio-demographic factors, including social environment factors, may be more important targets than features of the physical environment for future interventions aiming to promote healthy active lifestyles in young children and their parents. Given this was one of the first studies to examine these associations in young child-parent dyads, future research should confirm and build on these findings.
To determine whether hospitalized pediatric patients may be inadvertently exposed to excessive amounts of commercial television, a survey of the quantity and quality of daytime television viewing by patients was conducted at the Winnipeg Children's Centre. Television viewing patterns were recorded for 845 patients, each of whom was observed at half-hour intervals between 9 am and 5 pm. The results indicated that the percentage of children viewing television throughout the day ranged from 21% fo 75% with a mean daily weekday viewing time of 3.9 hours per eight-hour survey day. The data indicate that daytime viewing is substantially higher for hospitalized than nonhospitalized children and includes much programming that is directed toward adults. Hospital television viewing was characterized as indiscriminate and excessive, indicating the need to increase staff awareness of the influence of television and, if possible, provide patients with commercial-free, alternative programming.
The aim was to develop a new instrument for measuring length of sleep as well as television and computer habits in school-age children. A questionnaire was constructed for use when children visit the school health care unit. Three aspects of the validity of the questionnaire were examined: its face validity, content validity, and construct validity. Test-retest reliability was assessed by giving the questionnaire twice, 2 weeks apart, to the respondents. The questionnaire was assessed as being reasonably valid, the test-retest results (n = 138) showing 90.4% of the estimates regarding bedtime on weeknights on the two survey occasions to lie within ± 30 min of each other, the test-retest agreement also being rather close (? > .600) regarding both sleep and media habits. The instrument can be a valuable tool in a clinical setting, both for measuring sleep habits in a class and for discussing sleep with individual school children and their families.
Electronic media use is becoming an increasingly important part of life for today's school-aged children. At the same time, concern of children's sleep habits has arisen, and cross-sectional studies have shown that electronic media use is associated with short sleep duration and sleep disturbances. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to investigate whether baseline electronic media use and media presence in a child's bedroom predicted sleep habits as well as changes in these sleep habits 18 months later among 10- to 11-year-old children in Finland.
The school-aged children (n=353, 51% girls) from 27 schools answered a questionnaire in 2006 and again 2008 in the Helsinki region of Finland. Electronic media use was measured by computer use and TV viewing. Media presence in a child's bedroom means the presence of a TV or a computer in a child's bedroom. Sleep habits were measured by bedtimes on school days and at the weekend days, sleep duration, discrepancy of bedtimes, and discrepancy of sleep duration between school days and weekends. Linear regression analyses were used to examine whether electronic media use and media presence predicted sleep habits with adjustments for grade, family structure, and baseline sleep. Gender differences were also examined.
The children used a computer for one hour per day and watched TV over one hour a day in 2006. They slept over nine hours on school days and over ten hours at the weekends in 2008. Computer use and television viewing predicted significantly shorter sleep duration (p