There is strong scientific evidence from clinical and epidemiological studies that tobacco use, particularly cigarette smoking, is linked to periodontal disease as well as other serious but less common oral health diseases. Given the strength of this evidence, dentists must include tobacco cessation services (TCS) as part of their routine care. This paper describes barriers to the adoption of TCS as identified by Alberta dentists participating in a randomized intervention trial and discusses strategies for overcoming these barriers. As well, suggestions are made to professional associations and educational institutes on ways to increase the incorporation of tobacco cessation into professional practice standards.
Comment In: J Can Dent Assoc. 2001 Mar;67(3):12711315384
The purpose of Health Technology Assessment (HTA) is to make the best possible summary of the evidence regarding specific health interventions in order to influence health care and policy decisions. The need for decision makers to find relevant HTA data when it is needed is a barrier to its usefulness. These barriers are highest in rural areas and amongst isolated practitioners.
A multidisciplinary team developed an interactive case-based instructional strategy on the topic of chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) management using clinical evidence derived by HTA. The evidence for each of 18 CNCP interventions was distilled into single-sheet summaries. Clinicians and HTA specialists ('Ambassadors') conducted 11 two-hour interactive sessions on CNCP in eight of Alberta's nine health regions. Pre- and post-session evaluations were conducted.
The sessions were attended by 130 individuals representing 14 health and administrative disciplines. The ambassador model was well received. The use of content experts as ambassadors was highly rated. The educational strategy was judged to be effective. Awareness of the best evidence in CNCP management was increased. Although some participants reported practice changes as a result of the workshops, the program was not designed to measure changes in patient outcome.
The ambassador program was successful in increasing awareness of the best evidence in CNCP management, and positively influenced treatment decisions. Its teaching methods were felt to be unique and innovative by participants. Its methods could be applied to other clinical content areas in order to increase the uptake of the results of HTA.
Cites: J Contin Educ Health Prof. 2002 Fall;22(4):214-2112613056
Cites: J Health Soc Policy. 2002;15(3-4):23-3712705462
At-risk and problem drinkers (excluding those with severe dependency) are estimated to be 20% of the Canadian population. With minimal training family physicians can effectively manage patients with alcohol problems. The Alcohol Risk Assessment and Intervention Project of the College of Family Physicians of Canada has developed materials and training for family physicians to use in helping their patients reduce the risks of alcohol-related harm.
To obtain, in a survey-based study, detailed information on the faculty currently responsible for teaching radiation biology courses to radiation oncology residents in the United States and Canada.
In March-December 2007 a survey questionnaire was sent to faculty having primary responsibility for teaching radiation biology to residents in 93 radiation oncology residency programs in the United States and Canada.
The responses to this survey document the aging of the faculty who have primary responsibility for teaching radiation biology to radiation oncology residents. The survey found a dramatic decline with time in the percentage of educators whose graduate training was in radiation biology. A significant number of the educators responsible for teaching radiation biology were not fully acquainted with the radiation sciences, either through training or practical application. In addition, many were unfamiliar with some of the organizations setting policies and requirements for resident education. Freely available tools, such as the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Radiation and Cancer Biology Practice Examination and Study Guides, were widely used by residents and educators. Consolidation of resident courses or use of a national radiation biology review course was viewed as unlikely by most programs.
A high priority should be given to the development of comprehensive teaching tools to assist those individuals who have responsibility for teaching radiation biology courses but who do not have an extensive background in critical areas of radiobiology related to radiation oncology. These findings also suggest a need for new graduate programs in radiobiology.
Cites: Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1992;24(5):847-91447014
Cites: Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1996 Jul 1;35(4):821-68690652
Cites: Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1999 Aug 1;45(1):153-6110477019
Breastfeeding pamphlets are being produced for new mothers by both commercial and nonprofit sources in increasing quantities. A regional lactation committee decided to evaluate these materials on the basis of accuracy, degree of positive approach to breastfeeding, readability and compliance with the WHO/UNICEF Code on the Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes. Results indicate that materials produced by non-profit sources scored higher in positive approach accuracy and WHO Code compliance compared with commercial sources. Only 2 of 22 pamphlets in the sample were written within the recommended reading level of Grade 5-8. None of the materials met all of the criteria for good promotional breastfeeding literature.
In 1998, Dietitians of Canada and the team of registered dietitians at Kellogg Canada Inc. partnered to develop Mission Nutrition, a national bilingual nutrition education program that provides curriculum-based resources to teachers. The main objectives of this study were to measure the awareness and utility of the Mission Nutrition program among elementary teachers, and to identify opportunities to enhance the Mission Nutrition resources to increase use. A ten-minute telephone survey was conducted with a representative sample of 203 elementary school teachers. A sub-sample of 20 teachers then participated in a more in-depth 30-minute telephone survey. A need for increased promotion of the Mission Nutrition program was identified on the basis of the 22% awareness among teachers participating in the initial interview. All teachers who had used the educator guides and student activity sheets reported that they would use them again. Teachers found that the Mission Nutrition materials were well-researched and contained useful activities relevant to students. The findings indicate that, to be most effective, nutrition education resources should be provided in a ready-to-use format and integrated with core curricula. Teachers also suggested that materials should include fresh ideas to engage students at different grade levels, and ways to involve parents. Dietitians are ideally positioned to work collaboratively with educators to develop these types of nutrition education resources.
To determine whether objectively detected lung sounds were significantly different in patients with pneumonia than those in asymptomatic subjects, and to quantify the pneumonia findings for teaching purposes.
At a community teaching hospital we used a multi-channel lung sound analyzer to examine a learning sample of 50 patients diagnosed with pneumonia and 50 control subjects. Automated quantification and characterization of the lung sounds commonly recognized to be associated with pneumonia were used to generate an "acoustic pneumonia score." These were examined in the learning sample and then prospectively tested in 50 patients and 50 controls.
The acoustic pneumonia score averaged 13 in the learning sample and 11 in the test sample of pneumonia patients. The scores were 2 and 3 in the controls. The positive predictive value of a score higher than 6 was 0.94 in the learning sample and 0.87 in the test sample. The sensitivities in the 2 groups were 0.90 and 0.78, and the specificities were 0.94 and 0.88, respectively. Adventitious sounds were more common in pneumonia patients (inspiratory crackles 81% vs 28%, expiratory crackles 65% vs 9%, rhonchi 19% vs 0%).
Our lung sound analyzer found significant differences between lung sounds in patients with pneumonia and in asymptomatic controls. Computerized lung sound analysis can provide objective evidence supporting the diagnosis of pneumonia. We believe that the lung-sound data produced by our device will help to teach physical diagnosis.
We sought to describe information that makes women feel (1) uncertain and (2) reassured about their human papillomavirus (HPV) status and the potential health implications of an HPV DNA test result and (3) to examine information seeking after receiving their result. Thirty women (previously tested HPV negative) read factual information on HPV and cervical cancer and were asked which facts were uncertainty inducing and which were reassuring. Twenty-four facts reassured women of their HPV negative status, 11 facts made women feel uncertain, and 10 facts made them feel both. The most common reason for seeking information in the future was receiving a positive test result. The authors outline what specific facts about HPV health providers can emphasize to alleviate anxiety and encourage women to feel reassured of their low cancer risk following a negative test result.