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208 records – page 1 of 21.

700,000 complaints against high tobacco taxes fail to sway government or MDs.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature225904
Source
CMAJ. 1991 Aug 1;145(3):245
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1-1991
Author
P. Sullivan
Source
CMAJ. 1991 Aug 1;145(3):245
Date
Aug-1-1991
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Humans
Plants, Toxic
Smoking - prevention & control
Taxes
Tobacco
PubMed ID
2070317 View in PubMed
Less detail

2020 healthcare management in Canada: a new model home next door.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature184152
Source
Healthc Manage Forum. 2003;16(1):6-10, 44-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
2003
Author
D Wayne Taylor
Author Affiliation
Michael G. DeGroote School of Business, McMaster University.
Source
Healthc Manage Forum. 2003;16(1):6-10, 44-9
Date
2003
Language
English
French
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Cost Sharing
Efficiency
Employment - statistics & numerical data - trends
Health Care Reform
Health Expenditures - trends
Health Services Needs and Demand - trends
Humans
Models, organizational
National Health Programs - economics - organization & administration - trends
Politics
Population Dynamics
Social Change
Social Values
Taxes - trends
Abstract
The Commission on the Future of Health Care in Canada asked whether Medicare is sustainable in its present form. Well, Medicare is not sustainable for at least six reasons. Given a long list of factors, such as Canada's changing dependency ratio, the phenomenon of diminishing returns from increased taxation, competing provincial expenditure needs, low labour and technological productivity in government-funded healthcare, the expectations held by baby boomers, and the evolving value sets of Canadians--Medicare will impoverish Canada within the next couple of decades if not seriously recast. As distasteful as parallel private-pay, private-choice healthcare may be to some policy makers and providers who grew up in the 1960s, the reality of the 2020s will dictate its necessity as a pragmatic solution to a systemic problem.
PubMed ID
12908160 View in PubMed
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Act No. 372 of 7 June 1989 on registered partnerships.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature38223
Source
Annu Rev Popul Law. 1989;16:56
Publication Type
Article
Date
1989
Source
Annu Rev Popul Law. 1989;16:56
Date
1989
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Behavior
Denmark
Developed Countries
Divorce
Economics
Europe
Financial Management
Homosexuality
Legislation
Marriage
Ownership
Scandinavia
Sexual Behavior
Social Welfare
Socioeconomic Factors
Taxes
Wills
Abstract
This Danish law authorizes persons of the same sex to register their partnership and be treated legally in most cases as persons in heterosexual partnerships are treated, notably with respect to marriage, divorce, succession, and social and tax laws. Nonetheless, persons in such partnerships are not treated the same as heterosexuals with respect to adoption of children and the right to obtain a religious celebration of their partnership.
PubMed ID
12344468 View in PubMed
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Alaskans voice strong support for tobacco tax increase.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature3528
Source
Alaska Med. 1996 Jan-Mar;38(1):41-2
Publication Type
Article
Author
A M Holen
Author Affiliation
Tobacco Project, Alaska Native Health Board Trampling, Anchorage 99508, USA.
Source
Alaska Med. 1996 Jan-Mar;38(1):41-2
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska
Health planning
Humans
Public Opinion
Smoking - adverse effects - economics - prevention & control
Taxes
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - adverse effects - prevention & control
PubMed ID
8936106 View in PubMed
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Alcohol in Greenland 1951-2010: consumption, mortality, prices.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature117897
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2012;71
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Hans Aage
Author Affiliation
Department of Social Science, Roskilde University, Roskilde, Denmark. hansaa@ruc.dk
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2012;71
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alcohol Drinking - economics - ethnology - trends
Alcohol-Related Disorders - economics - ethnology - mortality
Alcoholic Beverages - adverse effects - economics
Commerce - economics - trends
Cross-Cultural Comparison
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Greenland - epidemiology
Health Policy - economics - trends
Humans
Inuits - statistics & numerical data
Male
Taxes - economics - trends
Abstract
Fluctuations in alcohol consumption in Greenland have been extreme since alcohol became available to the Greenland Inuit in the 1950s, increasing from low levels in the 1950s to very high levels in the 1980s - about twice as high as alcohol consumption in Denmark. Since then, consumption has declined, and current consumption is slightly below alcohol consumption in Denmark, while alcohol prices are far above Danish prices.
Description of historical trends and possible causal connections of alcohol prices, alcohol consumption and alcohol-related mortality in Greenland 1951-2010 as a background for the evaluation of the impact of various types of policy.
Time series for Greenland 1951-2010 for alcohol prices, consumption and mortality are compiled, and variation and correlations are discussed in relation to various policies aimed at limiting alcohol consumption. Corresponding time series for Denmark 1906-2010 are presented for comparison.
The trends in alcohol prices and consumption followed each other rather closely until the 1990s in Greenland and the 1980s in Denmark. At this time, consumption stabilised while prices decreased further, but the effect of prices upon consumption is strong, also in recent years. A trend in Greenlandic mortality similar to consumption is discernible, but not significant. Among alcohol-related deaths cirrhosis of the liver is less prevalent whilst accidents are more prevalent than in Denmark.
The effect of alcohol excise taxes and rationing upon consumption is evident. The stabilisation and subsequent decline in consumption since the mid-1990s, while alcohol prices decreased persistently, does not preclude continued effects of prices. On the contrary, price effects have been neutralised by other stronger causes. Whether these are government anti-alcohol campaigns or a cultural change is not clear.
Notes
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2008 Sep;67(4):299-30719024800
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2005 Jun;64(3):234-4516050317
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2004;63 Suppl 2:410-315736695
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2006 Jun;65(3):219-2716871828
PubMed ID
23256091 View in PubMed
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Alcohol outlet densities and alcohol price: the British Columbia experiment in the partial privatization of alcohol sales off-premise.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature117275
Source
Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2013 May;37(5):854-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2013
Author
Andrew J Treno
William R Ponicki
Tim Stockwell
Scott Macdonald
Paul J Gruenewald
Jinhui Zhao
Gina Martin
Alissa Greer
Author Affiliation
Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation, Berkeley, CA 94704, USA. andrew@prev.org
Source
Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2013 May;37(5):854-9
Date
May-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alcohol Drinking
Alcohol-Related Disorders
Alcoholic Beverages - economics - supply & distribution
British Columbia
Commerce - economics - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Marketing
Multilevel Analysis
Privatization - economics - statistics & numerical data
Public Policy - economics
Restaurants - economics - statistics & numerical data
Taxes - economics
Abstract
Alcohol beverage prices or taxes have been shown to be related to alcohol sales and use and related problems. What is not clear are the mechanisms underlying these relationships.
This study examines the relationship between alcohol outlet density under conditions of the partial privatization of off-premise consumption in British Columbia (BC) occurring over the past decade. Two hypotheses are tested. First, reflecting basic supply-demand principles, greater geographic densities of alcohol outlets will be directly related to reductions in beverage prices in response to greater competition. Second, reflecting the effects of niche marketing and resulting market stratification, increased densities of private liquor stores will be especially related to reductions in beverage prices within this outlet category. Data were collected from: (i) a survey of BC private store prices and practices, (ii) alcohol outlet location information, and (iii) data on demographic characteristics. Multilevel models examine the relationships between prices at individual private liquor stores and the densities of government liquor stores, private liquor stores, bars, and restaurants, controlling for background demographics and geographic unit level effects. Spatial dependencies were also examined.
Increased densities of private liquor stores were associated with lower mean prices of beer and all alcohol aggregated across brands at the store level. There appeared to be no outlet level effect on discounting patterns, however, with the mean price differences apparently reflecting differences in the quality of brands carried rather than unequal prices for any given brand.
Increased densities of private off-sale alcohol outlets appear to result in lower prices charged at said establishments independently of other types of alcohol outlets suggesting that they represent an emerging marketing niche in the context of off-sale outlet privatization.
PubMed ID
23316802 View in PubMed
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Alcohol prices, beverage quality, and the demand for alcohol: quality substitutions and price elasticities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature76088
Source
Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2006 Jan;30(1):96-105
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2006
Author
Paul J Gruenewald
William R Ponicki
Harold D Holder
Anders Romelsjö
Author Affiliation
Prevention Research Center, Berkeley, CA 94704, USA. paul@prev.org
Source
Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2006 Jan;30(1):96-105
Date
Jan-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alcohol Drinking - economics - prevention & control
Alcoholic Beverages - economics - standards - supply & distribution
Choice Behavior
Commerce - economics
Economic Competition - economics
Humans
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden
Taxes - economics
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Although the published literature on alcohol beverage taxes, prices, sales, and related problems treats alcoholic beverages as a simple good, alcohol is a complex good composed of different beverage types (i.e., beer, wine, and spirits) and quality brands (e.g., high-, medium-, and low-quality beers). As a complex good, consumers may make substitutions between purchases of different beverage types and brands in response to price increases. For this reason, the availability of a broad range of beverage prices provides opportunities for consumers to mitigate the effects of average price increases through quality substitutions; a change in beverage choice in response to price increases to maintain consumption. METHODS: Using Swedish price and sales data provided by Systembolaget for the years 1984 through 1994, this study assessed the relationships between alcohol beverage prices, beverage quality, and alcohol sales. The study examined price effects on alcohol consumption using seemingly unrelated regression equations to model the impacts of price increases within 9 empirically defined quality classes across beverage types. The models enabled statistical assessments of both own-price and cross-price effects between types and classes. RESULTS: The results of these analyses showed that consumers respond to price increases by altering their total consumption and by varying their brand choices. Significant reductions in sales were observed in response to price increases, but these effects were mitigated by significant substitutions between quality classes. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that the net impacts of purposeful price policy to reduce consumption will depend on how such policies affect the range of prices across beverage brands.
PubMed ID
16433736 View in PubMed
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Alcohol prices, taxes, and alcohol-related harms: A critical review of natural experiments in alcohol policy for nine countries.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature281030
Source
Health Policy. 2016 Mar;120(3):264-72
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2016
Author
Jon P Nelson
Amy D McNall
Source
Health Policy. 2016 Mar;120(3):264-72
Date
Mar-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alcohol Drinking - adverse effects
Alcoholic Beverages - adverse effects - economics
Australia
Denmark
Finland
Health Policy
Hong Kong
Humans
Iceland
Russia
Sweden
Switzerland
Taxes
United States
Abstract
Evidence for alcohol-price policy relies heavily on aggregate econometric studies for the United States. Prior reviews of prices and alcohol-related harms include only a few studies based on natural experiments. This study provides a comprehensive review of natural experiments for a wide variety of harms from studies published during 2003 to 2015. We examine policy changes that importantly affected alcohol taxes and prices, and related changes in availability.
Forty-five studies met inclusion criteria, covering nine countries: Australia, Denmark, Finland, Hong Kong, Iceland, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, and United States. Some studies cover more than one harm or country, and there are 69 outcomes for review. Summaries are provided for five outcome groups: alcohol-related mortality and hospitalizations; assaults and other crime; drink-driving; intoxication; and survey-indexes for dependency. The review notes both positive/mixed results and negative/null results.
Findings indicate that changes in taxes and prices have selective effects on harms. Mortality outcomes are positive for liver disease and older persons, especially in Finland and Russia. Mostly null results for assaults and drink-driving are found for five countries. Intoxication results for Nordic countries are mixed for selective subpopulations. Results for survey indexes are mixed, with no strong pattern of outcomes within or across countries.
Prior reviews stress taxes as a comprehensive and cost-effective intervention for addressing alcohol-related harms. A review of natural experiments indicates the confidence placed on this measure is too high, and natural experiments in alcohol policy had selective effects on various subpopulations.
PubMed ID
26861971 View in PubMed
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208 records – page 1 of 21.