GOALS OF WORK: The purpose of this study was to better understand various variables related to food intake and eating problems in children with cancer during their chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-two consecutively admitted children, diagnosed with cancer and undergoing chemotherapy, participated in this study. Twenty-one of them, their parents and attending nurses participated in semi-structured interviews. Ten of the children underwent a taste acuity test, and recognition thresholds for the four basic tastes were determined. MAIN RESULTS: The shared view of both children and parents was that altered taste was the predominant cause of the eating problems. In contrast, the nurses perceived that nausea was the most important cause of the children's eating problems. In addition, psychological aspects such as learned food aversions and negative attitudes towards hospital food were regarded as important by children, parents and nurses. The taste test showed that the patients had higher thresholds for bitter taste and made more taste recognition errors compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS: Changes seem to exist both in the primary gustatory sense as well as in food perception in paediatric cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Single solutions, such as efforts to serve "tasty food", do not suffice alone. A more effective solution may be to combine different strategies and combinations of oral, enteral and parenteral nutrition should be considered to prevent malnutrition.
A comparative analysis of the factual nutrition and health indices for 1970-2001 was made involving 2950 persons aged 60-89 years, residents of Ukraine. The state of nutrition of 530 single non-working citizens of NIS states, being taken care of by a social care service, was studied. The assortment structure of food products is sharply reduced, the contents of main nutrients and biologically active substances are unbalanced. The is conditioned by poor socio-economic of the people of this age category, on the one hand and by age-related changes of the digestive system, taste sensitivity, etc., on the other. It has been shown that more than 15% of older has a protein-energetic malnutrition.
Genetic markers--blood groups ABO, RH, MN; serum proteins HP, PI, TF, C3; erythrocyte enzymes ACP1, ESD, AK1, PGM1, GLO1, PGD, PGP; and the other: PTC-tasting, ear wax types and color vision, were studied in two aboriginal Buryatian populations of Baikal Lake region: in Chitinskaya and Irkutskaya Provinces. Two samples were further divided into subgroups, according to their health status: "healthy", "indefinite" and "sick" by means of special regression procedure. The "healthy" subgroup of the Chitinskaya Province population is characterized by higher frequencies of PTC-tasters: 0.871 vs. 0.757 in the "sick" part (chi 2 = 5.36, p less than 0.05); higher frequency of the phenotype PI M1M1: 0.734 in "healthy" vs. 0.547 in "sick" (chi 2 = 8.89, p less than 0.01); also, lower frequency of the PI M1M2 phenotype: 0.148 and 0.299, respectively (chi 2 = 7.49, p less than 0.01); the frequencies of the phenotype TF C2C2 are: 0.015 and 0.076 (chi 2 = 5.48, p less than 0.05). In Irkutskaya Province population differences between "healthy" and "sick" subgroups were discovered for blood group AB: "healthy" 0.046 and "sick"--0.175 (chi 2 = 11.28, p less than 0.010); for GC (1F-2)--0.214 and 0.116 (chi 2 = 4.45, p less than 0.05). Some other differences between "healthy" and "sick" in both populations are not significant. Some trends concerning heterozygosity in loci--GC, PGM, TF were discovered. The results are considered from the viewpoint of higher fitness of some genetic traits in the populations studied.
Aquatic taste and odor (T/O) is rarely produced by toxic contaminants or pathogens; nevertheless, it has major negative impacts on the public and the drinking-water industry. Consumers use T/O as a primary measure of drinking water safety, yet this criterion is poorly understood, and its origins and triggers often go untraced. Much surface-water T/O is produced by the increased production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by algae. These chemicals can be symptomatic of short-term problems with source, treatment, or distribution systems. At a broader level, they can signify fundamental changes in aquatic ecosystems induced by human activity. T/O varies in chemistry, intensity, and production patterns among different algal taxa, and is often linked with excessive algal growth and/or the invasion of noxious species. Some VOCs may signal the presence of potentially toxic algae and/or other associated water quality issues. Traditionally, T/O has been linked with the widespread eutrophication of many surface waters; however, there has been a recent growth in the number of T/O events reported in oligo-mesotrophic systems, for example, the Glenmore Reservoir (Calgary AB) and the Laurentian Great Lakes. From a management and public perspective, therefore, it is vitally important to monitor T/O, and to continue to work toward a better understanding of the proximal and the ultimate causes-which VOCs and algae species are involved. In the short term, odor events could be anticipated and water treatment optimized. In the long term, this approach would contribute toward more a robust management of this resource through remedial or preventative measures.
To determine (i) the importance of parents’ motives for everyday family food choices; and (ii) the relationship between parental food choice motives and eating patterns of 12- to 13-year-old children.
Cross-sectional study. A modified version of the Food Choice Questionnaire was used to determine parental motives for food choices. The children’s food and drink intake was reported by their parents using a retrospective FFQ. Eating patterns were derived using principal component analysis. The association between food choice motives and eating patterns was examined using multiple linear regression analysis.
Primary schools, Telemark County, Norway.
In total, 1095 children aged 12–13 years and their parents.
The parental motive ‘sensory appeal’ was the most important for food choice, followed by ‘health’, ‘convenience’, ‘natural content’ and ‘weight control’. The food choice motives were associated with the eating patterns of the children, independent of background variables. The motive ‘health’ was most strongly associated with a ‘varied Norwegian’ eating pattern, representing a diverse diet and regular meals, while the motive ‘convenience’ appeared to be the most important barrier to this eating pattern. ‘Weight control’ was not associated with the ‘varied Norwegian’ eating pattern.
To encourage parents to make healthy food choices for their children, health promotion activities should focus on the health benefits of a diverse diet and regular meals, rather than weight control. Recommended food products should be made more convenient and easily available for families with children.
The oil sands industry is rapidly expanding surface mining and bitumen extraction operations near the Athabasca River in northeastern Alberta, Canada. There are anecdotal comments that the fish from the Athabasca River have an off-taste, implying that the oil sands operations are the cause. This study was done to determine if the taste of wild fishes caught near the Athabasca oil sands was less preferred than the taste of fishes collected from two other river basins in Alberta. In blinded experiments, consumer sensory panels, of 40 to 44 participants, tasted steamed samples of each of three fish species (walleye (Sander vitreus), northern pike (Esox lucius), and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis)) from three different sources in Alberta (the Athabasca River, Buck Lake, and McGregor Lake). Data analyses showed that there was no evidence from the consumer preference rankings that the taste of the fish from the Athabasca River was preferred less than the taste of fish from two other water bodies in Alberta.
The study was conducted to evaluate whether body fat is a better measure than body mass index (BMI) for determining the relationship between body size and sweetness perception and preference.
Seventy-two women were recruited and separated into two groups. First, BMI was determined and used to classify each woman as either normal weight (18.5 to 24.9 kg/m²) or overweight (>25.0 kg/m²). Body fat was determined from skinfold sites and used to categorize women into normal (