The art of biogeography starts with two basic questions: WHERE has each species been found and WHICH species have been found there. While using the Annotated zoogeography of non-marine Tardigrada. Part III: North America and Greenland (Kaczmarek, et al. 2016) we found that 26 non-standard state and province abbreviations had been used in the WHERE table and that there was no WHICH table. We present an adjusted WHERE table and add a WHICH table as a supplement to the original paper.
This paper is the third monograph of the series that describes the global records of limno-terrestrial water bears (Tardigrada). Here, we provide a comprehensive list of non-marine tardigrades recorded from the North America, providing an updated and revised taxonomy accompanied by geographic co-ordinates, habitat, and biogeographic comments. It is hoped this work will serve as a reference point and background for further zoogeographical and taxonomical studies.
Two new eutardigrade species are described: Eremobiotus ginevrae sp. nov. and Paramacrobiotus pius sp. nov. The first is similar to Eremobiotus alicatai (Binda, 1969) but differs in the claw shape and dimensions. It has been found in Sicily, Israel and Russia. The second species, belonging to the richtersi group, is currently found exclusively in Sicily. It has a smooth cuticle, three macroplacoids and a microplacoid, eggs with reticulated trunco-conical processes with small terminal thorns; the egg-shell is areolated and the areolae are clearly sculptured.
Macrobiotus coronifer Richters, 1903 (type species for Richtersius Pilato amp; Binda, 1989): designating a new neotype from the original type locality described within the integrative taxonomy framework.
The designation of a neotype for Macrobiotus coronifer Richters, 1903 (now the type species of the genus Richtersius Pilato Binda, 1989) by Maucci Ramazzotti (1981) with type locality Bodø in Norway is shown to be invalid as it does not comply with the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (Article 75.3.4). Furthermore, the specimen selected by Maucci Ramazzotti (1981) is not from the original type locality, and the superficial and outdated documentation prevent a reliable identification of the species. A Code-compliant neotype is therefore designated. The new neotype was collected from the original locus typicus in Svalbard and described with standard light microscopy, detailed scanning electron microscopy imaging, DNA barcodes and a transcriptome, which makes it ideally suited for stabilising the taxonomy and nomenclature of Richtersius coronifer (Richters, 1903).
The family Echiniscidae comprises limno-terrestrial heterotardigrades with a strongly sclerotised dorsum, typically covered with plates. Among other members of the Echiniscus evolutionary line, the genus Testechiniscus Kristensen, 1987 stands out with well-developed ventral armature and polygonal sculpturing of the dorsal plates. It has alleged bipolar distribution (with satellite alpine records in the Holarctic). Thanks to fresh material from terra typica (Svalbard), we integratively redescribe (i.e. using light and electron microscopy imaging, morphometry, and molecular methods) the nominal species for the genus, Testechiniscus spitsbergensis (Scourfield, 1897). A comparison of the neotype series with a number of Holarctic records revealed morphological variability suggesting that the species may encompass several taxa, which, most likely, will be possible to delineate primarily with molecular tools. Moreover, based on material from Simien Mountains (Northern Ethiopia), we describe a new sibling subspecies, Testechiniscus spitsbergensis tropicalis ssp. nov. Extensive morphometric datasets are provided for the genus members for the first time. A new generic definition is proposed, embracing the two subspecies of T. spitsbergensis and T. laterculus (Schuster et al., 1980), but excluding two circum-Antarctic species, T. macronyx (Richters, 1907) and T. meridionalis (Murray, 1906). The later species are likely to be erected in the future as separate genera, and their autapomorphies are described here. In the light of our findings, the genus Testechiniscus should be recognised as a native element of the Northern Hemisphere, with mainly circum-Arctic distribution and additional, insular alpine records from the Nearctic, Palearctic and Eastern Afrotropic.
Species checklists are powerful and important tools of communication between taxonomists and applied environmental biologists, which in turn lead to well-planned and successful conservation strategies and ecological studies. Despite this, only recently the interest on compiling systematic checklists is growing among taxonomists who study tardigrades-micrometazoans that inhabit almost every habitat worldwide. As the Finnish records of tardigrades (a.k.a. water bears) species are incomplete, outdated and no checklist has ever been compiled for this country, an easy-to-consult checklist is here reported. This checklist covers all Finnish tardigrade taxa identified in the past and in the 13 samples collected for this study. A total of 68 tardigrade species are recorded from Finland, with 6 of them being new records presented in this contribution. Of these species, four have their loci tipici in Finland and we provide an English translation of their original German descriptions. A Generalised Linear Model was used to test the effect of sampling effort and area size on the number of species recorded in each biogeographical province of Finland. The results showed that geographical differences in species richness can be explained solely by sampling effort. The number of tardigrade species recorded in Finland corresponds to about 5% of all described species in the phylum, thus indicating a potential high richness for this country. However, the results of the Generalised Linear Model highlight that a reliable knowledge of the tardigrade diversity in Finland will be reached only with a more uniform and intensive sampling effort.
Tardigrades occur worldwide and in a variety of ecosystems and habitats representing an important component of the micrometazoan biodiversity. Several studies documenting the occurrence of tardigrades in Sweden have been published since the first reports in early 1900, but no comprehensive summary of these studies have been published. We compiled the available information on recorded tardigrades from Sweden, using material from published studies and museum and university collections. In total, our review document 101 species of tardigrades that have been recorded from Sweden (an updated checklist of tardigrades from Sweden will be available online), of which 14 species are new records for the country. The highest number of species was recorded in the northernmost province of Lappland and the more southern provinces of Uppland and Skåne, while much lower species numbers are reported from the middle part of Sweden. This pattern probably represents biased sampling activities of biologists rather than real differences in biodiversity of tardigrades. In view of the few studies that have been made on tardigrade biodiversity in Sweden, the relatively high number of tardigrade species recorded, representing almost a tenth of the species recorded worldwide, indicates that many more species remain to be found. In this respect, more studies of the marine ecosystems along the Swedish west coast and the long Baltic Sea coastline would be of particular interest.