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Anatoxin-a and its metabolites in blue-green algae food supplements from Canada and Portugal.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature164436
Source
J Food Prot. 2007 Mar;70(3):776-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2007
Author
Dorothea F K Rawn
Barbara Niedzwiadek
Benjamin P Y Lau
Martin Saker
Author Affiliation
Food Research Division, Food Directorate, Health Products and Food Branch, Health Canada, 2203D, 251 Sir Frederick Banting Driveway, Tunney's Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0K9. thea_rawn@hc-sc.gc.ca
Source
J Food Prot. 2007 Mar;70(3):776-9
Date
Mar-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Canada
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid - methods
Chromatography, Liquid
Consumer Product Safety
Cyanobacteria - metabolism
Dietary Supplements - analysis - microbiology - standards
Fluorescence
Food contamination - analysis
Humans
Portugal
Sensitivity and specificity
Spirulina - metabolism
Tandem Mass Spectrometry - methods
Tropanes - analysis
Abstract
Blue-green algae and spirulina are marketed in health food stores and over the Internet as food supplements in Canada, the United States, and Europe. The reported benefits of consuming these products include improved digestion, strengthening of the immune system, and relief from the symptoms of attention deficit disorder. Some of these products have been found to contain elevated concentrations of microcystins, which are known hepatotoxins. In addition to producing microcystins, Anabaena sp. and Aphanizomenon sp. also produce the potent neurotoxin anatoxin-a. Samples of food supplements containing blue-green algae and spirulina were collected in Portugal and from urban centers across Canada in 2005. Extracts of these supplements were analyzed to determine the presence and concentrations of anatoxin-a and its two main metabolites, dihydroanatoxin-a and epoxyanatoxin-a. Initial analyses were performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection, and confirmation required the use of LC with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). The HPLC with fluorescence detection indicated no anatoxin-a, but four samples were suspected to contain either dihydroanatoxin-a or epoxyanatoxin-a at 0.1 to 0.2 microg/g. LC-MS-MS results, however, indicated no trace of either transformation product in any sample analyzed. The detection limits for anatoxin-a, dihydroanatoxin-a, and epoxyanatoxin-a were similar for both fluorescence detection (0.2 to 0.3, 0.4 to 1.4, and 0.2 to 1.5 pg on the column, respectively) and mass spectrometry (0.3 to 1.5, 0.3 to 0.8, and 0.5 to 0.8 pg on the column, respectively). Because of the higher specificity of the LC-MS-MS analysis, all tested food supplement samples were considered free of anatoxin-a and its transformation products.
PubMed ID
17388076 View in PubMed
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An online SPE LC-MS/MS method for the analysis of antibiotics in environmental water.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature283186
Source
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017 Mar;24(9):8692-8699
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2017
Author
Meierjohann Axel
Kortesmäki Ewelina
Brozinski Jenny-Maria
Kronberg Leif
Source
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017 Mar;24(9):8692-8699
Date
Mar-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anti-Bacterial Agents - analysis
Chromatography, Liquid - methods
Finland
Online Systems
Rivers - chemistry
Solid Phase Extraction - methods
Tandem Mass Spectrometry - methods
Waste Water - analysis - chemistry
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Water Purification
Abstract
A fast and simple method for the analysis of 17 commonly used antibiotics in Finland in water samples was developed. The method combines online solid phase extraction using a reusable online trapping column combined with analytical separation on a C18 analytical column and detection by a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The method was fully validated for detection and quantification limits as well as linearity, repeatability, and matrix effects. The method gave an excellent linear response (r (2) > 0.99) and detection limits for all compounds (1-10 ng(-1)), except for tetracycline (20 ng l(-1)) and roxithromycin (50 ng l(-1)). The repeatability was evaluated at two concentrations, and the values at 5 ng l(-1) ranged from 5 to 39% and at 100 ng l(-1) ranged from 3 to 19%. To test the method on real samples at low environmental concentrations, water samples collected from a river receiving discharges from two wastewater treatment plants were analyzed as well as samples from a pristine river. Seven antibiotics as well as carbamazepine were detected in the samples. The concentration of the compounds ranged from 5 to 81 ng l(-1).
PubMed ID
28210946 View in PubMed
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Circulating levels of bisphenol A and phthalates are related to carotid atherosclerosis in the elderly.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134109
Source
Atherosclerosis. 2011 Sep;218(1):207-13
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2011
Author
P Monica Lind
Lars Lind
Author Affiliation
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
Source
Atherosclerosis. 2011 Sep;218(1):207-13
Date
Sep-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Atherosclerosis - blood
Benzhydryl Compounds
Carotid Artery Diseases - blood
Carotid Stenosis - blood - ultrasonography
Chromatography, Liquid - methods
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors - pharmacology
Male
Phenols - blood
Phthalic Acids - blood
Prevalence
Sweden
Tandem Mass Spectrometry - methods
Tunica Intima - pathology
Tunica Media - pathology
Abstract
Bisphenol A (BPA) levels have previously been associated with coronary heart disease (CHD). Since CHD is an atherosclerotic disease, we investigated if circulating levels of BPA and phthalate metabolites are related to atherosclerosis in a cross-sectional study.
In the population-based Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study (1016 subjects all aged 70), the prevalence of overt plaques and echogenectity (grey scale median, GSM) of carotid artery plaques were recorded by ultrasound in both of the carotid arteries. The thickness (IMT) and echogenicity (IM-GSM) of the intima-media complex were also measured. Bisphenol A (BPA) and 10 phthalate metabolites were analyzed in serum by a API 4000 liquid chromatograph/tandem mass spectrometer.
Mono-methyl phthalate (MMP) was related to carotid plaques in an inverted U-shaped manner. This pattern was significant after adjustment for gender, body mass index, blood glucose, blood pressure, HDL and LDL-cholesterol, serum triglycerides, smoking, antihypertensive treatment and statin use (p=0.004). High levels of BPA, mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP) and MMP were associated with an echogenic IM-GSM and plaque GSM, while high levels of mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) were associated with an echolucent IM-GSM and plaque GSM (p
PubMed ID
21621210 View in PubMed
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Circulating levels of bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates in an elderly population in Sweden, based on the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature130909
Source
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2012 Jan;75(1):242-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2012
Author
Lena Olsén
Erik Lampa
Detlef A Birkholz
Lars Lind
P Monica Lind
Author Affiliation
Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. lena.olsen@medsci.uu.se
Source
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2012 Jan;75(1):242-8
Date
Jan-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Benzhydryl Compounds
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Environmental Exposure - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Environmental pollutants - blood
Female
Humans
Male
Phenols - blood
Phthalic Acids - blood - metabolism
Prospective Studies
Sweden
Tandem Mass Spectrometry - methods
Abstract
The plastic manufacture compounds, bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates, are ubiquitous and have therefore been detected in virtually all types of analyzed human samples. The aim of this study was: (1) to investigate concentrations of serum levels of BPA and phthalate metabolites in seniors residing in the city of Uppsala, Sweden (2) to evaluate gender differences in relation to serum levels of BPA and phthalate metabolites in the subjects. In the population-based Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS), encompassing 1016 subjects, all aged 70, serum levels of BPA and phthalate metabolites were measured by Isotope Dilution-High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry. BPA and four out of ten phthalate metabolites, namely, Monoisobutyl phthalate (MiBP), Monomethyl phthalate (MMP), Monoethyl phthalate (MEP), Mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), were detectable in almost all subjects. Of the remaining phthalate metabolites, Monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), Mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MeHHP), and Mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) were seen in some 300-700 of the subjects, whereas Monoisononyl phthalate (MINP) and Mono-n-octyl phthalate (MOP) were found in only a few and Monocyclohexyl phthalate (MCHP) was not detected in any subject. Neither the circulation levels of BPA nor those of phthalate metabolites differ between the genders in this elderly population of residents in Uppsala, Sweden.
PubMed ID
21955883 View in PubMed
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Comparative Analysis of Far East Sikhotinsky Rhododendron (Rh. sichotense) and East Siberian Rhododendron (Rh. adamsii) Using Supercritical CO2-Extraction and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS Spectrometry.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature311169
Source
Molecules. 2020 Aug 19; 25(17):
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Aug-19-2020
Author
Mayya Razgonova
Alexander Zakharenko
Sezai Ercisli
Vasily Grudev
Kirill Golokhvast
Author Affiliation
N.I. Vavilov All-Russian Institute of Plant Genetic Resources, 190000 Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
Source
Molecules. 2020 Aug 19; 25(17):
Date
Aug-19-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Antioxidants - analysis - isolation & purification
Carbon Dioxide - chemistry
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid - methods
Chromatography, Supercritical Fluid - methods
Far East
Phytochemicals - analysis - isolation & purification
Plant Extracts - analysis - isolation & purification
Rhododendron - chemistry - classification
Siberia
Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization - methods
Tandem Mass Spectrometry - methods
Abstract
Rhododendron sichotense Pojark. and Rhododendron adamsii Rheder have been actively used in ethnomedicine in Mongolia, China and Buryatia (Russia) for centuries, as an antioxidant, immunomodulating, anti-inflammatory, vitality-restoring agent. These plants contain various phenolic compounds and fatty acids with valuable biological activity. Among green and selective extraction methods, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction has been shown to be the method of choice for the recovery of these naturally occurring compounds. Operative parameters and working conditions have been optimized by experimenting with different pressures (300-400 bar), temperatures (50-60 °C) and CO2 flow rates (50 mL/min) with 1% ethanol as co-solvent. The extraction time varied from 60 to 70 min. A HPLC-UV-VIS-ESI-MS/MS technique was applied to detect target analytes. A total of 48 different biologically active components have been identified in the Rh. adamsii SC-CO2 extracts. A total of 31 different biologically active components have been identified in the Rh. sichotense SC-CO2 extracts.
PubMed ID
32825161 View in PubMed
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Correlations between phthalate metabolites in urine, serum, and seminal plasma from young Danish men determined by isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature140989
Source
J Anal Toxicol. 2010 Sep;34(7):400-10
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2010
Author
Hanne Frederiksen
Niels Jørgensen
Anna-Maria Andersson
Author Affiliation
Department of Growth and Reproduction, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Blegdamsvej 9, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark. hanne.01.frederiksen@rh.regionh.dk
Source
J Anal Toxicol. 2010 Sep;34(7):400-10
Date
Sep-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Biological Markers - analysis
Chromatography, Liquid - methods
Denmark
Environmental monitoring
Humans
Male
Phthalic Acids - analysis - metabolism
Plasticizers - analysis - metabolism
Semen - chemistry
Tandem Mass Spectrometry - methods
Young Adult
Abstract
Phthalates are suspected of endocrine disrupting effects. We aimed to develop an analytical method for simultaneous determination of several phthalate metabolites in human urine, serum, and seminal plasma and to study correlations between levels of metabolites in these matrices. Thirteen metabolites were determined in samples from 60 young Danish men. Metabolites of common di-ester phthalates were detected in most urine samples. Summed di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites were excreted in urine in the highest amount (median = 91.1 ng/mL), followed by monoethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-iso-butyl phthalate (MiBP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), and finally summed di-isononyl phthalate (DiNP) metabolites. All these metabolite levels correlated significantly, indicating that when a participant was highly exposed to one phthalate he was also highly exposed to other phthalates. Several metabolites were also detectable in serum and in seminal plasma, although in much lower levels. Significant correlations between MEP and MiBP levels in serum and urine were observed, showing that serum levels could be used as biomarkers of human exposure. For DEHP and DiNP metabolites, correlations between urine and serum levels were only observed for mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP) and mono-(4-methyl-7-carboxyheptyl) phthalate (MCiOP), indicating that these secondary carboxylated metabolites were better serum markers than primary metabolites [mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and mono-iso-nonyl phthalate (MiNP)]. In seminal plasma, only MEP levels correlated significantly to levels in urine and in serum.
PubMed ID
20822678 View in PubMed
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Determination of 12 urinary phthalate metabolites in Norwegian pregnant women by core-shell high performance liquid chromatography with on-line solid-phase extraction, column switching and tandem mass spectrometry.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature272929
Source
J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2015 Oct 1;1002:343-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1-2015
Author
Azemira Sabaredzovic
Amrit Kaur Sakhi
Anne Lise Brantsæter
Cathrine Thomsen
Source
J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2015 Oct 1;1002:343-52
Date
Oct-1-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid - methods
Female
Humans
Norway
Phthalic Acids - urine
Pregnancy
Solid Phase Extraction - methods
Tandem Mass Spectrometry - methods
Abstract
Phthalates (dialkyl or alkyl phenyl esters of phthalic acid, benzene-1.2-dicarboxylic acid) are a group of industrial chemicals that have been used for more than 50 years. Phthalates are ubiquitous and can potentially have adverse effects on humans. The present study presents an accurate, sensitive and automated analytical method for measuring 12 phthalate metabolites (free and conjugated) in human urine using on-line solid phase extraction coupled to high performance liquid chromatography - electrospray ionization - tandem mass spectrometry. A small volume of urine sample (300µL) is required. Glucoronidated phthalate metabolites are deconjugated by incubation with glucoronidase enzyme (Escherihia coli-K 12) and the reaction is stopped by adding formic acid. This is the only sample preparation needed prior to injection into the column switching system. Thus, the method involves minimal sample handling and minimizes possible contaminations from the surroundings. The method was validated by spiking synthetic urine at 5-8 levels in the range of 0.1-500ng phthalate metabolites/mL synthetic urine. The method is sensitive with limits of detection in the low nanogram range, and rapid with a total run time about 25min. The accuracy was between 90 and 120 % and the intermediate precision was given as relative standard deviation was below 20% for most of the compounds. The high sensitivity, high throughput and minimal manual handling make the method suitable for large-scale biomonitoring studies. The present method was applied for the determination of phthalate metabolites in urine samples from 116 pregnant women, a subproject within the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Concentrations of all the twelve phthalate metabolites was >LOQ in 100% of the samples analysed. Mean urinary concentrations for different phthalate metabolites ranged from 1 to 100ng/mL, the highest concentrations were observed for di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolites and lowest for di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP) metabolites. The urinary concentrations for most of the phthalate metabolites in the present study were found to be in the same range as found in other studies of pregnant women.
PubMed ID
26355271 View in PubMed
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Determination of acidic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in aquatic samples by liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry combined with carbon nanotubes-based solid-phase extraction.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature288262
Source
Environ Monit Assess. 2017 Oct 18;189(11):568
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-18-2017
Author
I. Reinholds
I. Pugajeva
Dz Zacs
E. Lundanes
J. Rusko
I. Perkons
V. Bartkevics
Source
Environ Monit Assess. 2017 Oct 18;189(11):568
Date
Oct-18-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adsorption
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal - analysis
Chromatography, Liquid - methods
Diclofenac
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Ibuprofen
Latvia
Limit of Detection
Nanotubes, Carbon - chemistry
Norway
Solid Phase Extraction - methods
Tandem Mass Spectrometry - methods
Water - analysis
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Abstract
A solid-phase extraction (SPE) method based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT) was developed for the determination of 12 acidic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in surface waters and tap water. Pristine and functionalised CNTs were evaluated as sorbent materials. Batch experiments were used to optimise sorption and desorption conditions (sorbent type and amount, adsorption time, pH). The adsorption equilibrium was reached after 8 to 48 h duration, which increased with the pH of solution. Non-agglomerated pristine CNTs (20 mg) showed the most optimal adsorption (94 to 100%) for all of the analytes after a 30-min contact period in acidified water solutions (100 mL). The compounds retained at those conditions were recovered by 40 to 95% by using 5% ammonium hydroxide in methanol as the desorbing solution at ambient conditions. A comprehensive liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-QqQ-MS/MS) was used for the analysis of real water samples. The method showed sufficient recovery (65-125%) and good precision (2-14% relative standard deviation (RSD)). The limits of detection and quantification ranged between 0.01 and 1.3 ng L-1 and 0.04 and 3.9 ng L-1. Only diclofenac and ibuprofen were found in the analysed surface water samples from Latvia (n = 10) and Norway (n = 14). Diclofenac was found at 1.7-8.4 ng L-1 concentration in two samples of surface waters, whereas the concentrations of ibuprofen ranged between 1.0 and 9.2 ng L-1 in seven samples collected in Norway and 3.9-17 ng L-1 in three samples from Latvia.
Notes
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PubMed ID
29043458 View in PubMed
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Determination of benzodiazepines in ante-mortem and post-mortem whole blood by solid-supported liquid-liquid extraction and UPLC-MS/MS.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature129317
Source
J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2012 Feb 1;883-884:177-88
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1-2012
Author
E N Sauve
M. Langødegård
D. Ekeberg
A M L Øiestad
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Division of Forensic Toxicology and Drug Abuse, Oslo, Norway.
Source
J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2012 Feb 1;883-884:177-88
Date
Feb-1-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Autopsy
Benzodiazepines - blood - chemistry
Calibration
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid - methods
Drug Stability
Forensic Toxicology
Humans
Limit of Detection
Liquid-Liquid Extraction - methods
Norway
Reproducibility of Results
Tandem Mass Spectrometry - methods
Abstract
A solid-supported liquid-liquid extraction ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the determination of benzodiazepines commonly found in Norway, for use in cases with suspected driving impairment and autopsy cases by analysis of human whole blood samples. The following compounds were included: alprazolam, bromazepam, clonazepam, diazepam, flunitrazepam, lorazepam, midazolam, nitrazepam, nordiazepam (metabolite of diazepam), oxazepam and phenazepam. Aliquots of 500 µL whole blood were added 500 µL of borate buffer pH 11 and extracted by solid-supported liquid-liquid extraction on ChemElut(®) columns using three times 2.5 mL of methyl tert-butyl ether. Deuterated analogues were used as internal standards (IS) for all analytes, except for midazolam, phenazepam and bromazepam which had no commercially available deuterated analogues at the time the method was developed, and therefore used diazepam-d(5), flunitrazepam-d(7) and nitrazepam-d(5), respectively. The analytes were separated using UPLC with a 2.1×100 mm BEH C(18)-column, 1.7 µm particle size, and quantified by MS/MS using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in positive mode. Two transitions were used for the analytes and one transition for the IS. The run time of the method was 8 min including equilibration time. The concentrations of the benzodiazepines in the method span a broad range varying from the lowest concentration of 0.005 µM for flunitrazepam to the highest of 20 µM for oxazepam. The calibration curves of extracted whole blood standards were fitted by second-order calibration curves weighted 1/x, with R(2) values ranging from 0.9981 to 0.9998. The intermediate precision had a CV (%) ranging between 2 and 19%. Recoveries of the analytes were from 71 to 96%. The LLOQs for the analytes varied from 0.0006 to 0.075 µM and the LODs from 0.005 to 3.0 nM. Matrix effects were studied by post extraction addition and found to be between 95 and 104% when calculated against an internal standard. A comparison with two other LC-MS methods was performed during method validation. Good correlation was seen for all analytes. The method has been running on a routine basis for several years, and has proven to be very robust and reliable with good results for external quality samples. The method also meets the requirements of the legislative limits for driving under the influence of non-alcohol drugs to be introduced in the Norwegian legislative system from 2012.
PubMed ID
22119506 View in PubMed
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Determination of dimethyltryptamine and ß-carbolines (ayahuasca alkaloids) in plasma samples by LC-MS/MS.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature121797
Source
Bioanalysis. 2012 Jul;4(14):1731-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2012
Author
Carolina Dizioli Rodrigues Oliveira
Guilherme Gonçalves Okai
José Luiz da Costa
Rafael Menck de Almeida
Diogo Oliveira-Silva
Mauricio Yonamine
Author Affiliation
University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. cdro@usp.br
Source
Bioanalysis. 2012 Jul;4(14):1731-8
Date
Jul-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Banisteriopsis - adverse effects - chemistry
Calibration
Carbolines - administration & dosage - blood
Chromatography, Liquid - methods
Female
Humans
Indole Alkaloids - administration & dosage - blood
Least-Squares Analysis
Limit of Detection
Male
N,N-Dimethyltryptamine - administration & dosage - blood
Plant Extracts - administration & dosage
Rats
Reference Standards
Reproducibility of Results
Sensitivity and specificity
Tandem Mass Spectrometry - methods
Abstract
Ayahuasca is a psychoactive plant beverage originally used by indigenous people throughout the Amazon Basin, long before its modern use by syncretic religious groups established in Brazil, the USA and European countries. The objective of this study was to develop a method for quantification of dimethyltryptamine and ß-carbolines in human plasma samples.
The analytes were extracted by means of C18 cartridges and injected into LC-MS/MS, operated in positive ion mode and multiple reaction monitoring. The LOQs obtained for all analytes were below 0.5 ng/ml. By using the weighted least squares linear regression, the accuracy of the analytical method was improved at the lower end of the calibration curve (from 0.5 to 100 ng/ml; r(2)> 0.98).
The method proved to be simple, rapid and useful to estimate administered doses for further pharmacological and toxicological investigations of ayahuasca exposure.
PubMed ID
22877219 View in PubMed
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29 records – page 1 of 3.