Overall 50 children suffering from infectious-allergic bronchial asthma who live in ecologically contrasting regions were examined. Those children residing in unfavourable, in terms of ecological conditions, regions demonstrated diminution of the peripheral blood T-lymphocytes together with a decrease in their functional activity as well as in the activity of interleukin 2. It is in this group of children that immunomodulating effect of thymalin is less apparent. It is suggested that the relevant immune correction in such cases might be achieved through repeated courses of treatment with immunomodulating agents and rehabilitation of patients in favourable ecological conditions together with prescribing of other immunostimulators of selective action in respect of the T-link of the immunity system.
Examination of radiosafety effect of the new nutrition compositions were carried out in the experiments. The immunomodifying influence of this products were established. It is shown the possibility of their addition to the ration of population from the polluted territory.
1] ?Alberta Transplant Applied Genomics Centre, University of Alberta, 250 Heritage Medical Research Centre, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada  ?Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
Prospective studies of unselected indication biopsies from kidney transplants, combining conventional assessment with molecular analysis, have created a new understanding of transplant disease states and their outcomes. A large-scale Genome Canada grant permitted us to use conventional and molecular phenotypes to create a new disease classification. T cell-mediated rejection (TCMR), characterized histologically or molecularly, has little effect on outcomes. Antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) manifests as microcirculation lesions and transcript changes reflecting endothelial injury, interferon-? effects, and natural killer cells. ABMR is frequently C4d negative and has been greatly underestimated by conventional criteria. Indeed, ABMR, triggered in some cases by non-adherence, is the major disease causing failure. Progressive dysfunction is usually attributable to specific diseases, and pure calcineurin inhibitor toxicity rarely explains failure. The importance of ABMR argues against immunosuppressive drug minimization and stands as a barrier to tolerance induction. Microarrays also defined the transcripts induced by acute kidney injury (AKI), which correlate with reduced function, whereas histologic changes of acute tubular injury do not. AKI transcripts are induced in kidneys with late dysfunction, and are better predictors of failure than fibrosis and inflammation. Thus progression reflects ongoing parenchymal injury, usually from identifiable diseases such as ABMR, not destructive fibrosis.
Anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) is polyclonal, containing Ab specificities capable of binding to various immune-cell subsets implicated in the pathogenesis of GVHD, including T cells, B cells, natural killer cells, monocytes/macrophages, neutrophils and DC. We wished to determine which ATG specificities are important for GVHD prevention. We measured day 7 serum levels of 23 ATG specificities in 120 hematopoietic cell transplant recipients whose myeloablative conditioning included 4.5?mg/kg ATG (thymoglobulin). High levels of ATG specificities capable of binding to T- and B-cell subsets were associated with a low likelihood of acute GVHD (aGVHD). High levels of these ATG specificities were associated with increased rates of viral but not bacterial or fungal infections. They were not associated with an increased risk of malignancy relapse; on the contrary, high levels of ATG specificities capable of binding to regulatory T cells and invariant NKT cells were associated with a low risk of relapse. In conclusion, high levels of ATG antibodies to Ag(s) expressed on T and B cells are associated with a low risk of aGVHD and a high risk of viral but not bacterial or fungal infections. These antibodies have neutral or beneficial effects on relapse.
32 patients (21-55 years old) with multiple sclerosis (MS) were treated. Remittent form of the disease was observed in 24 patients, secondary progressive one--in 8 individuals; the degree of disability was characterised as scores 0-3 (the first group) and scores 5-6 (the second one) according to scale EDSS. Betaferon was administered subcutaneously in the dose of 8 MIU every other day during the period from several months to 1 year and more. Improvement of the state was observed in 5 patients with remittent form, stop of the development of disease (absence of either aggravations or signs of MS progression) was found in 26 cases (21 with remittent form, 4 with secondary progressive form). The conclusion was made: betaferon cannot cure but can stop progression of the disease. Indications and contraindications for betaferon therapy were established and recommendations were given concerning regimen of the treatment prophylaxis and therapy of side-effects.
Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) with ex vivo expanded tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in combination with IL-2 is an effective treatment for metastatic melanoma. Modified protocols of cell expansion may allow the treatment of most enrolled patients and improve the efficacy of adoptively transferred cells. The aims of this study were to establish and validate the novel 'Young TIL' method at our institution and perform a head-to-head comparison of clinical-grade products generated with this protocol opposed to the conventional 'Standard TIL', which we are currently using in a pilot ACT trial for patients with melanoma. Our results confirm that 'Young TILs' display an earlier differentiation state, with higher CD27 and lower CD56 expression. In addition, CD8(+) TILs expressing CD27 had longer telomeres compared with the CD27(-). A recently described subset of NK cells, endowed with a high expression of CD56 (CD56(bright)), was detected for the first time in both types of cultures but at a higher frequency on Young TILs. Young and Standard TILs' reactivity against autologous tumours was similar, with significant expression of TNF-a/IFN-?/CD107a by CD8(+) TILs detected in all cultures analysed. However, either slow expansion with high-dose IL-2 only or large numerical expansion with a rapid expansion protocol, which is required for current therapeutic protocols, significantly modified TIL phenotype by reducing the frequency of less differentiated, cancer-specific TILs. These studies further support the adoption of the Young TIL method in our current ACT trial and highlight the importance of continuous quality control of expansion protocols.
Sym 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon tumorigenesis was studied in immunologically different strains of rat: the Brown--Norway which is known to be immunologically a low-responder and the Fischer a high-responder. Brown--Norway rats received a total dose of 75, 150 or 225 mg DMH/kg or vehicle and Fischer rats received 150 mg DMH/kg or vehicle over a 3-week period. Rats were killed 5 months after the final treatment. Lymphocytes were isolated from the spleen and colon from rats treated with 150 mg DMH/kg or vehicle. Natural killer (NK) cell activity and the autologous mixed lymphocyte response (AMLR) as well as colon tumor incidence were compared between the two strains. Splenic and colonic intraperithelial lymphocytes (IEL) from the Brown--Norway strain demonstrated low NK activity and reduced splenic T lymphocyte proliferation in response to autologous non-T lymphocytes. As well, colonic lamina propria lymphocyte (LPL) proliferation was low and Brown--Norway rats had a low incidence of DMH-induced colon neoplasms (7%). In comparison, the Fischer rats had more effective splenic and IEL NK killing, enhanced splenic AMLR, enhanced LPL proliferation and a higher incidence of colon tumors (20%).
The balance between T helper cell subsets is an important regulator of the immune system and is often examined after immune therapies. We aimed to study the immunomodulatory effect of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 65 formulated with aluminium hydroxide (GAD-alum) in children with Type 1 diabetes, focusing on chemokines and their receptors.
Blood samples were collected from 70 children with Type 1 diabetes included in a phase II clinical trial with GAD-alum. Expression of CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) and CCR4 was analysed on CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes after in vitro stimulation with GAD(65) using flow cytometry, and secretion of the chemokines CCL2, CCL3 and CCL4 was detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cell supernatants with Luminex.
Expression of Th1-associated CCR5 was down-regulated following antigen challenge, together with an increased CCR4/CCR5 ratio and CCL2 secretion in GAD-alum-treated patients, but not in the placebo group.
Our results suggest that GAD-alum treatment has induced a favourable immune modulation associated with decreased Th1/Tc1 phenotypes upon antigen re-challenge, which may be of importance for regulating GAD(65) immunity.
The D-penicillamine autoimmune syndrome observed in Brown Norway (BN) rats is similar to an idiosyncratic reaction seen in some patients. We have previously shown that 2 weeks of low dose (5 mg/day) D-penicillamine pretreatment completely prevented all clinical signs of autoimmunity normally observed in 60-80% of rats treated with high dose (20 mg/day) D-penicillamine. We demonstrated that this tolerance is immune-mediated; tolerance to D-penicillamine is long lasting, we can adoptively transfer splenocytes from tolerant rats into slightly irradiated naive syngeneic recipients, and rats exposed to low dose D-penicillamine produce tolerogenic cytokines [Masson, M. J., and Uetrecht, J. P. (2004) Tolerance induced by low dose D-penicillamine in the brown norway rat model of drug-induced autoimmunity is immune-mediated. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 17, 82-94]. The aim of this study was to provide further understanding of the cells that are responsible for transferring tolerance and to assess the presence of regulatory T cells in the spleen of tolerant animals. We cotransferred T cells or splenocytes depleted of T cells from tolerant BN rats with splenocytes from naive BN rats into lightly irradiated syngeneic recipients. We found that neither tolerant splenocyte subpopulation could completely prevent clinical signs of autoimmunity. These results demonstrate that immune tolerance to D-penicillamine-induced autoimmunity may require both antigen presenting cells and T cells.
EGF receptor (EGFR) is involved in cell differentiation and proliferation in airways and may trigger cytokine production by T cells. We hypothesized that EGFR inhibition at the time of allergic sensitization may affect subsequent immune reactions. Brown Norway rats were sensitized with OVA, received the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, AG1478 from days 0 to 7 and OVA challenge on day 14. OVA-specific IgE in serum and cytokines and chemokines in BAL were measured 24 h after challenge. To evaluate effects on airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), rats were sensitized, treated with AG1478, intranasally challenged, and then AHR was assessed. Furthermore chemotactic activity of BALF for CD4(+) T cells was examined. The eosinophils, neutrophils and lymphocytes in BAL were increased by OVA and only the lymphocytes were reduced by AG1478. OVA significantly enhanced IL-6 concentration in BAL, which was inhibited by AG1478. However AHR, OVA-specific IgE and IL-4 mRNA expression in CD4(+) T cells were not affected by AG1478. BALF from OVA-sensitized/challenged rats induced CD4(+) T-cell migration, which was inhibited by both AG1478 treatment in vivo and neutralization of IL-6 in vitro. EGFR activation during sensitization may affect the subsequent influx of CD4(+) T cells to airways, mainly mediated through IL-6.