ABO blood groups have been shown to be associated with increased risks of venous thromboembolic and arterial disease. However, the reported magnitude of this association is inconsistent and is based on evidence from small-scale studies.
We used the SCANDAT2 (Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions) database of blood donors linked with other nationwide health data registers to investigate the association between ABO blood groups and the incidence of first and recurrent venous thromboembolic and arterial events. Blood donors in Denmark and Sweden between 1987 and 2012 were followed up for diagnosis of thromboembolism and arterial events. Poisson regression models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios as measures of relative risk. A total of 9170 venous and 24 653 arterial events occurred in 1 112 072 individuals during 13.6 million person-years of follow-up. Compared with blood group O, non-O blood groups were associated with higher incidence of both venous and arterial thromboembolic events. The highest rate ratios were observed for pregnancy-related venous thromboembolism (incidence rate ratio, 2.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.77-2.79), deep vein thrombosis (incidence rate ratio, 1.92; 95% confidence interval, 1.80-2.05), and pulmonary embolism (incidence rate ratio, 1.80; 95% confidence interval, 1.71-1.88).
In this healthy population of blood donors, non-O blood groups explain >30% of venous thromboembolic events. Although ABO blood groups may potentially be used with available prediction systems for identifying at-risk individuals, its clinical utility requires further comparison with other risk markers.
Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, McMaster University Medical Centre, 1200 Main Street West, HSC-2C, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8N 3Z5; Programs for Assessment of Technology in Health (PATH) Research Institute, St. Joseph's Healthcare Hamilton, 2000-25 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8P 1H1. Electronic address: email@example.com.
A systems analysis perspective was undertaken to evaluate access to surgery for children with medically refractory epilepsy (MRE) in Ontario, the largest province in Canada. The analysis focused on the assessment of referral patterns, healthcare utilization, time intervals and patient flow to determine surgical candidacy in children with MRE. The purpose of this systems analysis study was to identify rate limiting steps that may lead to delayed surgical candidacy decision and surgery.
Prolonged video electroencephalography (vEEG) is the common entry point into the process for all potential epilepsy surgery candidates. Therefore, a single centre retrospective chart review of children and adolescents referred to the epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) for vEEG monitoring at the primary referral centre for paediatric epilepsy surgery in the province. Basic demographic and referral data were abstracted for all screened cases. Included cases were: (1) age 8h). Forty five percent (n=160) of patients came to seizure conference for discussion of their data, of whom 40% (64/160) were considered surgical candidates. Time from first seizure to EMU referral was approximately 4.6 years. Time from referral to admission and admission to first seizure conference were approximately 103 days and 71 days, respectively. From initial EMU referral to surgery ranged from 1.6 to 1.1 years depending on whether the patient required invasive monitoring with intracranial EEG. Overall, 95% of surgical patients had a reduction in seizure frequency, 74% were seizure free after one year post-surgery.
Referral rates for surgical assessment are low relative to the estimated number of children living with MRE in Ontario, less than 2%. Hence, only a limited number of children with this disorder in the province of Ontario who could benefit from epilepsy surgery are being assessed for surgical candidacy. The majority of Ontario children with MRE are not being provided the potential opportunity to be seizure free and live without functional limitations following surgical intervention. These data document the critical need for health system redesign in Ontario, the goal of which should be to provide more consistent and just access to evidence-based medical and surgical care for those citizens of the province who suffer from epilepsy.
"Human error" is often cited as cause of occupational mishaps and industrial accidents. Human error, however, can also be seen as an effect (rather than the cause) of trouble deeper inside systems. The latter perspective is called the "new view" in ergonomics today. This paper details some of the antecedents and implications of the old and the new view, indicating that human error is a judgment made in hindsight, whereas actual performance makes sense to workers at the time. Support for the new view is drawn from recent research into accidents as emergent phenomena without clear "root causes;" where deviance has become a generally accepted standard of normal operations; and where organizations reveal "messy interiors" no matter whether they are predisposed to an accident or not.
This study presents a series of oil spill indexes for the characterization of physical and biological sensitivity in unsheltered coastal environments. The case study extends over 237 km of Lithuanian-Russian coastal areas subjected to multiple oil spill threats. Results show that 180 km of shoreline have environmental sensitivity index (ESI) of score 3. Natural clean-up processes depending on (a) shoreline sinuosity, (b) orientation and (c) wave exposure are favourable on 72 km of shoreline. Vulnerability analysis from pre-existing Kravtsovskoye D6 platform oil spill scenarios indicates that 15.1 km of the Curonian Spit have high impact probability. The highest seafloor sensitivity within the 20 m isobath is at the Vistula Spit and Curonian Spit, whereas biological sensitivity is moderate over the entire study area. The paper concludes with the importance of harmonized datasets and methodologies for transboundary oil spill impact assessment.
Recent research has suggested that perceived organizational connectivity may serve as an important measure of public health preparedness. Presumably, organizations with higher perceived connectivity also have a greater number of actual organizational ties. Using network analysis, we evaluate this presumption by assessing the correlation between perceived organizational connectivity and reported inter-organizational connections.
During late 2007-early 2008, representatives from organizations involved in the delivery of public health systems in Alberta were asked to complete an online questionnaire on public health preparedness. Organizational jurisdictional information was collected. Items from Dorn and colleagues connectivity scale (2007) were used to measure perceived organizational connectivity. Inter-organizational network data on formal connections in the area of pandemic influenza preparedness were collected using a roster approach. These data were imported into UCINET to calculate in- and out-degree centrality scores for each organization. One-way ANOVA tests assessed if perceived connectivity and in- and out-degree centrality varied among jurisdictions. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to assess the correlation of perceived connectivity and in- and out-degree centrality.
Significant mean differences among jurisdictions were observed for in-degree (F(3,116) = 26.60, p 0.05).
The results suggest in terms of pandemic preparedness that perceived connectivity may serve as a partial proxy measure of formal out-degree network connectivity.
Cites: Public Health Rep. 2007 May-Jun;122(3):329-3817518304
Cites: Annu Rev Public Health. 2008;29:205-1818348711
Cites: Health Care Manage Rev. 1999 Fall;24(4):7-1910572784
Cites: Annu Rev Public Health. 2007;28:69-9317222078
Food waste (FW) generates large upstream and downstream emissions to the environment and unnecessarily consumes natural resources, potentially affecting future food security. The ecological impacts of FW can be addressed by the upstream strategies of FW prevention or by downstream strategies of FW recycling, including energy and nutrient recovery. While FW recycling is often prioritized in practice, the ecological implications of the two strategies remain poorly understood from a quantitative systems perspective. Here, we develop a multilayer systems framework and scenarios to quantify the implications of food waste strategies on national biomass, energy, and phosphorus (P) cycles, using Norway as a case study. We found that (i) avoidable food waste in Norway accounts for 17% of sold food; (ii) 10% of the avoidable food waste occurs at the consumption stage, while industry and retailers account for only 7%; (iii) the theoretical potential for systems-wide net process energy savings is 16% for FW prevention and 8% for FW recycling; (iv) the theoretical potential for systems-wide P savings is 21% for FW prevention and 9% for FW recycling; (v) while FW recycling results in exclusively domestic nutrient and energy savings, FW prevention leads to domestic and international savings due to large food imports; (vi) most effective is a combination of prevention and recycling, however, FW prevention reduces the potential for FW recycling and therefore needs to be prioritized to avoid potential overcapacities for FW recycling.
The aim of this paper was to describe testing a Finnish version of the assessment of strategies in families (ASF) instrument and its construct validity and reliability in Finnish families. The ASF instrument is based on Friedemann's framework of systemic organization and the version used in this study consists of 25 items, each containing three statements. The instrument was developed to estimate family functioning in reaching the four targets of the framework of systemic organization. It provides sub-scores for the targets, family stability (system maintenance and coherence), family growth (system change and individuation), control (system maintenance and system change) and spirituality (individuation and coherence). Data were collected from patients attending the outpatient clinics of pulmonary and rheumatic diseases (N=196). Questionnaires were given to patients capable of understanding the questions and they returned questionnaires by mail directly to researchers. Construct validity was tested with exploratory factor analysis. Factor analysis was done with 22 items. The four factor solution was best suited. Two items were eliminated because of low factor loadings and crossloading. The total of 20 items were left in the instrument. Crohnbach's alpha was used to measure internal consistency. It was computed for each target separately and the total tool. There were discrepancies in the assignment of process dimensions which were expected because of cultural perceptions. The total instrument had a reliability of 0.85. The result of the analyses was a pretested tool with subscales for stability, growth, control and spirituality that have acceptable reliability and concept validity. Less satisfactory was the small number of items representing individuation. Another weakness is the lack of statistical distinction between system maintenance and coherence. The instrument is also usable in these subscales, but it needs further development and retesting. Items need to be added to express individuation, possibly some others. The new items will be formulated freely, paying attention to culture. However, the tool appears good enough to be used as measurement in various research studies.
Principal nosological forms of the maternal mortality are presented using terminology of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10), and a number of morphological markers are described facilitating establishment of primary causes of the maternal mortality. A new approach is suggested to the analysis of autopsies of women in childbirth in the context of the functional system "mother-her target organs-uteroplacental area-placenta-fetus, newborn". The primary cause of death is formulated by summation of macro- and microscopic changes in the above organs and areas.
We describe an audit system used in our Medical/Surgical Intensive Care Unit (ICU) during 1989-90. The system emphasizes the integration of data acquisition (database function) with the analysis and use of data (decision function). Resource input (human and technological) included patient demographics, diagnoses, complications, procedures, severity of illness (Apache II), therapeutic interventions (TISS), and nursing workload (GRASP and TISS). The output was assessed by survival, length of stay and ability to return home. The annual operating cost for 277 admissions (249 patients) to this ICU was $7,333. The implementation costs were $58,261 including program development and computer purchases. Non-survivors of ICU and hospital had higher Apache II scores on admission (P less than 0.0001) and longer ICU length of stay (P less than 0.05) than survivors. The nursing workload (both TISS and GRASP) on the day of admission and the last day in ICU were greater in non-survivors (P less than 0.0001) than survivors. Limitations of this audit system included the delay (6-9 mos) from ICU admission until data entry, the large number of diagnostic groups in the ICD.9.CM classification, and lack of a documented cause/effect relationship between interventions and complications. This audit system was more useful for utilization management than for quality assurance purposes.
Comment In: Can J Anaesth. 1992 Mar;39(3):210-31551150