OBJECTIVE: We studied the association between speech development in the first year of life and alexithymia in young adulthood. METHODS: The study forms a part of the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort. The original material consisted of all liveborn children in the provinces of Lapland and Oulu in Finland with an expected delivery date during 1966. The comprehensive data collection began during the antenatal phase. In 1997, a 31-year follow-up study was made on a part of the initial sample. The 20-item version of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) was given to 5983 subjects. Of them, 84% returned the questionnaire properly filled in. The ability to talk was classified according to whether the child spoke no words, one or two words, or three or more words at the age of 1 year. Statistical analyses on the association between the ability to speak at the age of 1 year and alexithymia at the age of 31 years were performed, adjusted for birth weight, mother's parity, place of residence and wantedness of pregnancy. RESULTS: The mean of the total TAS score was lowest among early speakers and for both genders separately. The differences were statistically significant. A parallel significant difference was found among males on TAS Factors 2 and 3 and in case of females on TAS Factors 1 and 3. CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence for an association between speaking development in early childhood and later alexithymia. Our results support the theory that alexithymia may be a developmental process starting in early childhood and reinforcing itself in a social context.
The study examined the relationship between migration and the incidence of emotional disorders among 568 young Third World immigrants in Norway. Participants were 10-17 years of age. Using a questionnaire, acculturative stress (i.e., change in health status as a result of acculturation) was found to exist among the children, although having to migrate or being born in Norway was not related to mental health status. A stressful acculturative experience (i.e., difficulties in initiating friendship with Norwegian peers) alone could account for only 1% of the self reported emotional disorders. Incidence of depressive tendencies, poor self image, and psychological and somatic symptoms were found to be related to close and supportive parents, marginality, integration, gender and the number of friends the child had. These accounted for between 12 and 15% of the explained variance. The paper theoretically discusses how these factors may be related to acculturative stress, and recommends them as starting points for a primary intervention program to reduce emotional disorders among these children.
To compare clinical characteristics and treatment between simultaneously investigated Sudanese and Swedish outpatients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
Outpatients with RA from Sudan (n = 281) and Sweden (n = 542) diagnosed according to the 1987 American College of Rheumatology criteria were recruited between December 2008 and September 2010 and compared concerning clinical presentation, treatment, and laboratory findings, including immunoglobulin M with rheumatoid factor (IgM-RF).
Sudanese patients had lower inclusion age (median 49 vs 68 yrs), disease duration (48 vs 107 mos), and disease onset age (43 vs 56 yrs) as compared with Swedish patients (p
The objective was to investigate the relationship between possible disaster stressors and subsequent health problems among tourists experiencing the 2004 South-East Asia tsunami. A cross-sectional study was performed as a postal survey concerning the experiences of the disaster exposure in retrospect and the presence of psychological symptoms (GHQ-28) in Norwegian tsunami victims 6 months post disaster. The strongest predictors of health complaints were danger of death, witness impressions, and bereavements. Aggravated outcomes were also seen in those who helped others in the acute phase or had sole responsibility for children when the tsunami struck. Having a family member or close friend who was injured was reversely associated with health problems. Women reported more psychological distress than men, but the difference disappeared with increasing degree of danger exposure. Dose-response relationships to psychological distress were found for single exposure factors as well as for the cumulative effects of being exposed to several exposure variables.
The association between cannabis use and the risk of psychosis has been studied extensively but the temporal order still remains controversial. Aims To examine the association between cannabis use in adolescence and the risk of psychosis after adjustment for prodromal symptoms and other potential confounders.
The sample (n = 6534) was composed of the prospective general population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort of 1986. Information on prodromal symptoms of psychosis and cannabis use was collected using questionnaires at age 15-16 years. Participants were followed up for ICD-10 psychotic disorders until age 30 years using nationwide registers.
The risk of psychosis was elevated in individuals who had tried cannabis five times or more (hazard ratio, (HR) = 6.5, 95% CI 3.0-13.9). The association remained statistically significant even when adjusted for prodromal symptoms, other substance use and parental psychosis (HR = 3.0, 95% CI 1.1-8.0).
Adolescent cannabis use is associated with increased risk of psychosis even after adjustment for baseline prodromal symptoms, parental psychosis and other substance use. Declaration of interest None.
The place of a psychiatric day treatment program within the spectrum of necessary treatment options is noted in the literature review. A established day program is described with some characteristics of 97 youths attending the program over a two year period. The authors highlight those characteristics which correlate with benefits derived from program attendance.
We investigated whether psychosis risk symptoms predicted psychiatric service use using seven-year register follow-up data.
Our sample included 715 adolescents aged 15-18, referred to psychiatric care for the first time. Psychosis risk symptoms were assessed with the Prodromal Questionnaire (PQ) at the beginning of the treatment. We assessed the power of the overall PQ as well as its positive, negative, general, and disorganized psychosis risk symptom factors in predicting prolonged service use. Baseline psychiatric diagnoses (grouped into 7 categories) were controlled for. Based on both inpatient and outpatient psychiatric treatment after baseline, adolescents were divided into three groups of brief, intermittent, and persistent service use.
Stronger symptoms on any PQ factor as well as the presence of a mood disorder predicted prolonged service use. All of the PQ factors remained significant predictors when adjusted for baseline mood disorder and multimorbidity.
In a prospective follow-up of a large sample using comprehensive mental health records, our findings indicate that assessing psychosis risk symptoms in clinical adolescent settings at the beginning of treatment could predict long-term need for care beyond diagnostic information. Our findings replicate the previous findings that positive psychosis risk symptoms are unspecific markers of severity of psychopathology. Also psychosis risk symptoms of the negative, disorganization, and general clusters are approximately as strongly associated with prolonged psychiatric service use in the upcoming years.
Research in traumatic brain injury (TBI) is challenging for several reasons; in particular, the heterogeneity between patients regarding causes, pathophysiology, treatment, and outcome. Advances in basic science have failed to translate into successful clinical treatments, and the evidence underpinning guideline recommendations is weak. Because clinical research has been hampered by non-standardised data collection, restricted multidisciplinary collaboration, and the lack of sensitivity of classification and efficacy analyses, multidisciplinary collaborations are now being fostered. Approaches to deal with heterogeneity have been developed by the IMPACT study group. These approaches can increase statistical power in clinical trials by up to 50% and are also relevant to other heterogeneous neurological diseases, such as stroke and subarachnoid haemorrhage. Rather than trying to limit heterogeneity, we might also be able to exploit it by analysing differences in treatment and outcome between countries and centres in comparative effectiveness research. This approach has great potential to advance care in patients with TBI.