The cultural characteristics of 1220 Campylobacter strains from a variety of sources are described. Forty-two were identified as Campylobacter fetus ssp. fetus (Véron & Chatelain, 1973), 1120 as members of the C. jejuni/C. coli group, and 58 did not conform to any known description. Sixteen of the latter strains had the basic characteristics of C. fetus but were atypical in certain other respects. The other 42 strains had the thermophilic characteristics of the jejuni/coli group, but were resistant to nalidixic acid and had other features in common; it is possible that they represent a new species. They were isolated from 19% of locally caught wild seagulls but only occasionally from other animals and man.Growth at 25 degrees C clearly distinguished strains of C. fetus from those of the jejuni/coli and the nalidixic acid-resistant thermophilic (NARTC) groups. Maximum growth temperature was less reliable for this purpose, and 43 degrees C was found to be better than the traditional 42 degrees C. By arranging the results of three tests (tolerance to 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride, growth at 30.5 and 45.5 degrees C) serially in the form of a schema comprising nine categories, the jejuni/coli strains fell into two main groups resembling the Institute Pasteur C. jejuni and C. coli type strains, but these groups could not be clearly defined owing to the existence of strains with intermediate characteristics.Most of the strains from cattle resembled C. jejuni, whereas those from pigs resembled C. coli; poultry strains occupied a more intermediate position. Strains from man and other animals were of mixed types, but most human strains resembled C. jejuni rather than C. coli. The type distribution pattern that most nearly matched that of human indigenous strains was given by a half-and-half mixture of strains from cattle and poultry.
Cites: J Pediatr. 1973 Mar;82(3):493-54572934
Cites: Br Med J. 1977 Jul 2;2(6078):9-11871765
Cites: Can J Microbiol. 1977 Sep;23(9):1311-371191
Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is one of the most common types of the intractable epilepsies and is most often associated with hippocampal sclerosis (HS), which is characterized by pronounced loss of hippocampal pyramidal neurons. microRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to be dysregulated in epilepsy and neurodegenerative diseases, and we hypothesized that miRNAs could be involved in the pathogenesis of MTLE and HS.
miRNA expression was quantified in hippocampal specimens from human patients using miRNA microarray and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction RT-PCR, and by RNA-seq on fetal brain specimens from domestic pigs. In situ hybridization was used to show the spatial distribution of miRNAs in the human hippocampus. The potential effect of miRNAs on targets genes was investigated using the dual luciferase reporter gene assay.
miRNA expression profiling showed that 25 miRNAs were up-regulated and 5 were down-regulated in hippocampus biopsies of MTLE/HS patients compared to controls. We showed that miR-204 and miR-218 were significantly down-regulated in MTLE and HS, and both were expressed in neurons in all subfields of normal hippocampus. Moreover, miR-204 and miR-218 showed strong changes in expression during fetal development of the hippocampus in pigs, and we identified four target genes, involved in axonal guidance and synaptic plasticity, ROBO1, GRM1, SLC1A2, and GNAI2, as bona fide targets of miR-218. GRM1 was also shown to be a direct target of miR-204.
miR-204 and miR-218 are developmentally regulated in the hippocampus and may contribute to the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of MTLE and HS.
We conducted a longitudinal study to determine the annual rate decline in pulmonary function measurements in male swine confinement workers. For comparison, a grain farming group and a nonfarming rural-dwelling control group were also chosen for the longitudinal study. Two hundred seventeen swine confinement workers, 218 grain farmers, and 179 nonfarming control subjects had valid pulmonary function measurements at the baseline observation conducted in 1990 to 1991 and at the second observation conducted in 1994 to 1995. The swine confinement workers were younger (mean age=38.3+/-11.7 [SD] years) than the nonfarming control subjects (42.6+/-10.4 years) and the grain farmers (44.5+/-11.9 years). When stratified by age, nonfarming control subjects had the lowest mean annual rate decline in FEV1 and FVC in all age categories. The swine confinement workers had the largest annual rate decline in FEV1 and FVC, and this was most obvious in the middle age categories. After controlling for age, height, smoking, and baseline pulmonary function, swine confinement workers had excess annual decline of 26.1 mL in FEV1 (p=0.0005), 33.5 mL in FVC (p=0.0002), and 42.0 mL/s in forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of FVC (FEF[25-75%]) (p=0.02) over nonfarming control subjects. Grain farmers had excess annual decline of 16.4 mL in FEV1 (p=0.03), 26.7 mL in FVC (p=0.002), and 11.2 mL/s in FEF(25-75%) (p=0.38) over control subjects. These findings suggest that workers engaged in the swine industry and grain farmers appear prone to accelerated yearly losses in lung function and may therefore be at risk for the future development of chronic airflow limitation.
Actinobacilli infections in pigs are relatively rare. Most cases were septicaemic in the first week of life. With increasing age manifestations after generalized infections were characteristic, such as arthritis, polyarthritis, endocarditis, nephritis, osteomyelitis and embolic pneumonia. Of 34 porcine strains 33 were identified as A. equuli and only one was identical with A. suis. The justification of retaining this species is discussed.
Natural swine and cattle gamma-IFNs were prepared for trials. One dose of gamma-suiferon contained 1000 IU, that of gamma-boviferon--2000 IU. Three series of researches were carried out to estimate the in vitro and in vivo absorbing activity of phagocytes (monocytes and neutrophiles), their bactericidal ability (on new born pigs and calves, 2 months old animals, sows and cows with calf) and antibodygenesis after immunization of animals by colibacteriosis vaccine. It has been shown in trials that gamma-IFN increased to significant degree (several times, as a rule) the absorbing activity of phagocytes (especially that of monocytes in new-born animals). At the same time bactericidal activity of phagocytes sharply increased--their functional reserve in experimental animals was significantly higher (2-3-times), than in control. Immunization by colinebacteriosis vaccine with additional treatment by homologous gamma-IFN 3-4 times increased antibodygenesis in comparison with control.
OBJECTIVES: Cell homing optimisation after transplantation is critical in myocardial infarction (MI) cell therapy. DESIGN: Eight pigs were randomized to receiving autologous purified (111)indium-labeled bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMCs) (10(8) cells/2 ml) by intramyocardial (IM) (n=4) or by intracoronary (IC) (n=4) transplantation after 90 minutes occlusion of the CX-coronary artery. Dual isotope SPECT imaging was performed 2 and 24 hours postoperatively. Two animals were additionally analyzed on the sixth postoperative day. Tissue samples from the major organs were analyzed. RESULTS: In SPECT imaging revealed that BMMCs administered using IM injection remained in the injured area. In contrast, minor proportion of IC transplanted cells remained in the myocardium, as most of the cells showed homing in the lungs. Analysis of the biopsies showed a seven-fold greater number of cells in the myocardium for the IM method and a 10-fold greater number of cells in the lungs in the IC group (p
We report an outbreak of acute selenium poisoning among suckling pigs; 92 piglets were found dead or moribund without preceding symptoms. Necropsy revealed acute congestion of liver and small intestine. The source was a powdered iron supplement contaminated by sodium selenite.
Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection in Norwegian pigs was largely subclinical. This study tested the hypothesis that the infection causes negligible impact on pigs' growth performance in terms of feed conversion efficiency, daily feed intake, daily growth, age on reaching 100 kg bodyweight and overall feed intake. A sample of 1955 pigs originating from 43 breeding herds was classified into five infection status groups; seronegative pigs (n = 887); seropositive pigs (n = 874); pigs positive for virus at bodyweight between 33 kg and 60 kg (n = 123); pigs positive for virus at bodyweight between 61 kg and 80 kg (n = 34) and pigs positive for virus at bodyweight between 81 kg and 100 kg (n = 37). Each pig had daily recordings of feed intake and bodyweight from 33 kg to 100 kg. Marginal effects of the virus infection on the outcomes were estimated by multi-level linear regression, which accounted for known fixed effects (breed, birthdate, average daily feed intake and growth phase) and random effects (cluster effects of pig and herd).
The seropositive and virus positive pigs had decreased (P value
Cites: Vet Microbiol. 2010 May 19;142(3-4):217-2419913367
African swine fever (ASF) is one of the most important swine diseases, mainly because of its significant sanitary and socioeconomic consequences. This review gives an update on the epidemiology of the disease and reviews key issues and strategies to improve control of the disease and promote its eradication. Several characteristics of ASF virus (ASFV) make its control and eradication difficult, including the absence of available vaccines, marked virus resistance in infected material and contaminated animal products, and a complex epidemiology and transmission involving tick reservoir virus interactions. The incidence of ASF has not only increased on the African continent over the last 15 years, so that it now affects West African countries, Mauritius and Madagascar, but it has also reached new areas, such as the Caucasus region in 2007. In fact, the rapid spread of the disease on the European continent and the uncontrolled situation in the Russian Federation places all countries at great risk as a result of intense global trade. The proximity of some affected areas to the European Union (EU) borders (