Adulterated alcoholic beverages are legal alcoholic products that have been illicitly tampered with, for instance, by criminally diluting them with water, purposely putting them into new containers to conceal their true origin or adding toxic substances to manipulate the qualities of alcoholic beverages. The collection of cases at the Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Iceland, which contains examples of each category of adulteration, is the basis of the present article. Especially noteworthy are cases involving the toxic substances methanol and/or ethylene glycol. Methanol has been added to legally produced wines to increase their "bite" and ethylene glycol to increase their sweetness. Adding these substances to wine has resulted in poisoning or death in other countries, but not in Iceland as far as is known.
During the years 1979 to 1981 a population-based case-control study of bladder cancer including papillomas was performed in Greater Copenhagen. After exclusions some 388 patients (290 males; 98 females) and an age- and sex-matched group of 787 controls (592 males; 195 females) remained for analysis. Controls were selected at random from the general population of the study area. All persons were interviewed concerning use of artificial sweeteners in addition to their exposure to a number of other known or suspected risk factors for bladder cancer. Fifty-five male bladder cancer patients (19.4%) and 150 controls (25.7%) had at some time used artificial sweeteners regularly. Among females 27.1% of cases and 25.9% of controls regularly used sweeteners. In neither sex was the relative risk significantly increased in users compared with non-users of artificial sweeteners. The relative risk of 0.78 in the two sexes combined was not significantly different from 1.0 (95% C.I.: 0.58-1.05). There was no indication of a regular increase in risk with increasing daily consumption of table-top sweeteners nor was there any indication of an increase in risk with a duration of regular use of artificial sweeteners. Taking into account a possible latency period between first regular use and bladder cancer development did not change the finding of an absence of association between use of artificial sweeteners and the risk of bladder cancer. Neither saccharine nor cyclamate users had an increased risk of bladder cancer. This population-based case-control investigation provides further evidence that it is highly unlikely that the consumption of artificial sweeteners has contributed to current bladder cancer rates in man.
Artificial sweeteners have been widely incorporated in human food products for aid in weight loss regimes, dental health protection and dietary control of diabetes. Some of these widely used compounds can pass non-degraded through wastewater treatment systems and are subsequently discharged to groundwater and surface waters. Measurements of artificial sweeteners in rivers used for drinking water production are scarce. In order to determine the riverine concentrations of artificial sweeteners and their usefulness as a tracer of wastewater at the scale of an entire watershed, we analyzed samples from 23 sites along the entire length of the Grand River, a large river in Southern Ontario, Canada, that is impacted by agricultural activities and urban centres. Municipal water from household taps was also sampled from several cities within the Grand River Watershed. Cyclamate, saccharin, sucralose, and acesulfame were found in elevated concentrations despite high rates of biological activity, large daily cycles in dissolved oxygen and shallow river depth. The maximum concentrations that we measured for sucralose (21 µg/L), cyclamate (0.88 µg/L), and saccharin (7.2 µg/L) are the highest reported concentrations of these compounds in surface waters to date anywhere in the world. Acesulfame persists at concentrations that are up to several orders of magnitude above the detection limit over a distance of 300 km and it behaves conservatively in the river, recording the wastewater contribution from the cumulative population in the basin. Acesulfame is a reliable wastewater effluent tracer in rivers. Furthermore, it can be used to assess rates of nutrient assimilation, track wastewater plume dilution, separate human and animal waste contributions and determine the relative persistence of emerging contaminants in impacted watersheds where multiple sources confound the usefulness of other tracers. The effects of artificial sweeteners on aquatic biota in rivers and in the downstream Great Lakes are largely unknown.
Dental caries (tooth decay) is a significant public health problem in Alaska Native children. Dietary added sugars are considered one of the main risk factors. In this cross-sectional pilot study, we used a validated hair-based biomarker to measure added sugar intake in Alaska Native Yup'ik children ages 6-17 years (N?=?51). We hypothesized that added sugar intake would be positively associated with tooth decay.
A 66-item parent survey was administered, a hair sample was collected from each child, and a dental exam was conducted. Added sugar intake (grams/day) was measured from hair samples using a linear combination of carbon and nitrogen ratios. We used linear and log-linear regression models with robust standard errors to test our hypothesis that children with higher added sugar intake would have a higher proportion of carious tooth surfaces.
The mean proportion of carious tooth surfaces was 30.8 % (standard deviation: 23.2 %). Hair biomarker-based added sugar intake was associated with absolute (6.4 %; 95 % CI: 1.2 %, 11.6 %; P?=?.02) and relative increases in the proportion of carious tooth surfaces (24.2 %; 95 % CI: 10.6 %, 39.4 %; P?
Artificially sweetened (AS) and sugar-sweetened (SS) beverages are commonly consumed during pregnancy. A recent Danish study reported that the daily intake of an AS beverage was associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery.
We examined the intake of AS and SS beverages in pregnant women to replicate the Danish study and observe whether AS intake is indeed associated with preterm delivery.
This was a prospective study of 60,761 pregnant women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Intakes of carbonated and noncarbonated AS and SS beverages and use of artificial sweeteners in hot drinks were assessed by a self-reported food-frequency questionnaire in midpregnancy. Preterm delivery was the primary outcome, and data were obtained from the Norwegian Medical Birth Registry.
Intakes of both AS and SS beverages increased with increasing BMI and energy intake and were higher in women with less education, in daily smokers, and in single women. A high intake of AS beverages was associated with preterm delivery; the adjusted OR for those drinking >1 serving/d was 1.11 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.24). Drinking >1 serving of SS beverages per day was also associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery (adjusted OR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.45). The trend tests were positive for both beverage types.
This study suggests that a high intake of both AS and SS beverages is associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery.
To evaluate the relationship between energy available from sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and total energy availability.
Ecological study using food availability data from 1976 to 2007 from the database of the Canadian Socio-Economic Information Management System. The average available total daily energy per capita (kJ (kcal)/d per capita) and percentage of energy from SSB (%E/d per capita) were calculated. A regression analysis was performed with average available total daily energy per capita (kJ (kcal)/d per capita) as the outcome and percentage of energy from SSB as the independent variable (%E/d per capita).
Between 1976 and 2007, total available energy increased on average by 669 kJ (160 kcal)/d per capita, and energy from SSB by 155 kJ (37 kcal)/d per capita. Total available energy increased by 434 kJ (104 kcal)/d per capita for a one unit increase in average percentage of energy from SSB.
Total available energy increased as the contribution of energy available from SSB increased. This increase was larger than that explained by energy availability from SSB alone. Reducing energy from soft drinks may contribute to larger reductions in total energy available for consumption.
Two hundred and forty-nine 4-year-old children were examined for dental caries, and data were collected on frequency of toothbrushing, use of fluorides, and intake of nine different snack products. Dental caries experience of children who brushed once or twice daily with parental help was significantly lower than that of children who brushed irregularly. The intake of snacks was high. Buns and cakes, ice cream, and sweet beverages were consumed more often than sweets. Children who had high snack intakes and brushed irregularly had significantly higher caries experience than those with low snack intakes and regular toothbrushing. Therefore irregular toothbrushing was shown to potentiate the impact of frequent snacking.
To investigate the beverage intake patterns of Canadian adults and explore characteristics of participants in different beverage clusters.
Analyses of nationally representative data with cross-sectional complex stratified design.
Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2 (2004).
A total of 14 277 participants aged 19-65 years, in whom dietary intake was assessed using a single 24 h recall, were included in the study. After determining total intake and the contribution of beverages to total energy intake among age/sex groups, cluster analysis (K-means method) was used to classify males and females into distinct clusters based on the dominant pattern of beverage intakes. To test differences across clusters, ?2 tests and 95 % confidence intervals of the mean intakes were used.
Six beverage clusters in women and seven beverage clusters in men were identified. 'Sugar-sweetened' beverage clusters - regular soft drinks and fruit drinks - as well as a 'beer' cluster, appeared for both men and women. No 'milk' cluster appeared among women. The mean consumption of the dominant beverage in each cluster was higher among men than women. The 'soft drink' cluster in men had the lowest proportion of the higher levels of education, and in women the highest proportion of inactivity, compared with other beverage clusters.
Patterns of beverage intake in Canadian women indicate high consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages particularly fruit drinks, low intake of milk and high intake of beer. These patterns in women have implications for poor bone health, risk of obesity and other morbidities.