The incidence of cardiovascular events remains high in patients with myocardial infarction (MI) despite advances in current therapies. New and better methods for identifying patients at high risk of recurrent cardiovascular (CV) events are needed. This study aimed to analyze the predictive value of an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in patients with acute myocardial infarction without known diabetes mellitus (DM).
The prospective cohort study consisted of 123 men and women aged between 31-80 years who had suffered a previous MI 3-12 months before the examinations. The exclusion criteria were known diabetes mellitus. Patients were followed up over 6.03???1.36 years for CV death, recurrent MI, stroke and unstable angina pectoris. A standard OGTT was performed at baseline.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical performance of Helioseal-F, a fluoride-containing fissure sealant, in school children at caries risk. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A caries risk assessment based on past caries experience, saliva microbial tests, buffer capacity and frequency of sugar intake was carried out in 204 healthy children, 6-7 years of age. Children exhibiting one or more risk factors were considered at caries risk (n = 121) and their permanent molars were sealed with a fluoride-containing fissure sealant, thus forming a fissure sealant group (FSG). The remaining 83 children with low caries risk received no fissure sealants and constituted a reference group (RG). Both groups were followed for 2 years. From 15 children of both groups, unstimulated whole saliva was collected 1 month after sealant placement in order to determine fluoride levels. In another 20 children, a split-mouth study design was utilized to compare the colonization of mutans streptococci adjacent to and on F-containing sealants and conventional controls. The sealants were placed by dental hygienists according to the manufacturers' instructions. RESULTS: A total of 431 fissure sealants were placed at baseline. Complete retention was found in 76.6% during the study period while 22.0% were partially lost. Six sealants (1.4%) were completely lost. The enamel caries incidence was 45% lower (P
The aim was to investigate triggering factors and insulin pump usage (continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion, CSII) at diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Data from 1999 and 2000 were collected retrospectively from Sweden. In 1999 and 2000, 7.4 and 11.0%, respectively, of children with diabetes used CSII. One hundred and forty-two episodes of DKA (pH
To compare the 1-year (previously published) and 3-year objective and subjective cure rates, and complications, related to the use of a collagen-coated transvaginal mesh for anterior vaginal wall prolapse against a conventional anterior repair.
Randomised controlled study.
Six departments of obstetrics and gynaecology in Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Denmark.
A total of 138 women, of 55 years of age or older, admitted for stage =2 anterior vaginal wall prolapse.
The women scheduled for primary anterior vaginal wall prolapse surgery were randomised between conventional anterior colporrhaphy and surgery with a collagen-coated prolene mesh. All patients were evaluated using the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q) assessment before and after surgery. Symptoms related to pelvic organ prolapse were evaluated using the Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire (PFIQ-7) and the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory (PFDI-20).
Information is sparse concerning the incidence and prognosis of headache in children from the general population, especially of tension-type headache. In this study, headache diagnoses and symptoms were reassessed in 122 out of 130 schoolchildren after 3 years. Nearly 80% of those with headache at first evaluation still reported headache at follow-up. Although the likelihood of experiencing the same headache diagnosis and symptoms was high, about one-fifth of children with tension-type headache developed migraine and vice versa. Female gender predicted migraine and frequent headache episodes predicted overall headache at follow-up. The estimated average annual incidence was 81 and 65 per 1000 children, for tension-type headache and migraine, respectively. We conclude that there is a considerable risk of developing and maintaining headache during childhood. Headache diagnoses should be reassessed regularly and treatment adjusted. Girls and children with frequent headache have a poorer prognosis and therefore intervention is particularly important in these groups.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of a school-based intervention programme to reduce the prevalence of overweight in 6 to 10-year-old children. DESIGN: Cluster-randomized, controlled study. SUBJECTS: A total of 3135 boys and girls in grades 1-4 were included in the study. METHODS: Ten schools were selected in Stockholm county area and randomized to intervention (n=5) and control (n=5) schools. Low-fat dairy products and whole-grain bread were promoted and all sweets and sweetened drinks were eliminated in intervention schools. Physical activity (PA) was aimed to increase by 30 min day(-1) during school time and sedentary behaviour restricted during after school care time. PA was measured by accelerometry. Eating habits at home were assessed by parental report. Eating disorders were evaluated by self-report. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight and obesity decreased by 3.2% (from 20.3 to 17.1) in intervention schools compared with an increase of 2.8% (from 16.1 to 18.9) in control schools (P
To evaluate the progression of dental erosion in 13-14 year-olds after 4 years, and its association with lifestyle and oral health.
227 randomly selected 13-14 year-olds from a Public Dental Clinic, Örebro, Sweden, were investigated. A clinical examination was performed which included dental caries/gingival/plaque status, as well as grading of dental erosion at the tooth surface and participant levels in "marker teeth", including buccal/palatal surfaces of 6 maxillary anterior teeth (13-23), and occlusal surfaces of first molars. An interview and a questionnaire regarding drinking habits and other lifestyle factors were completed. All investigations were repeated at follow-up. The participants were divided into high and low progression erosion groups and logistic regression statistics were applied.
175 individuals participated at follow-up. Progression occurred in 35% of the 2566 tooth surfaces. 32% of the surfaces had deteriorated by one severity grade (n=51 individuals) and 3% by two grades (n=2 individuals). Boys showed more severe erosion than girls at the follow-up. Among the variables predicting greater progression, a lower severity of erosive wear at baseline had the highest OR (13.3), followed in descending order by a "retaining" drinking technique, more frequent intake of drinks between meals, low GBI and lesser sour milk intake, with reference to the baseline recording. Using these five variables, sensitivity and specificity were 87% and 67% respectively, for predicting progression of erosion.
Progression of erosive lesions in Swedish adolescents aged 13-14 years followed up to age 17-18 years was common and related to certain lifestyle factors.
In permanent teeth, dental erosion may develop early in life and its progression is common. Dental health workers should be made aware of this fact and regular screenings for erosion and recording of associated lifestyle factors should be performed.
Prostate cancer is a significant cause of death in Western countries and is under the strong influence of androgens. The steroid 5alpha-reductase 2 catalyzes the metabolism of testosterone into the more potent androgen dihydrotestosterone in the prostate gland. The enzyme is a target in pharmacological treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia using specific inhibitors such as finasteride. Makridakis et al. have characterized the V89L and A49T polymorphisms in recombinant expression systems. The L allelic variant has a lower Vmax/Km ratio than the V variant. In the A49T polymorphism, the T variant has an increased Vmax/Km ratio. We performed a population-based case-control study of the impact of the SRD5A2 V89L and A49T polymorphisms on the risk of prostate cancer. We also studied the relation between the genotypes and age at diagnosis, tumor, node, metastasis stage, differentiation grade, prostate specific antigen and heredity. The study included 175 prostate cancer patients and 159 healthy controls that were matched for age. There was an association with SRD5A2 V89L LL genotype and metastases at the time of diagnosis, OR 5.67 (95% CI 1.44-22.30) when adjusted for age, differentiation grade, T-stage and prostate specific antigen. Heterozygous prostate cancer cases that carried the SRD5A2 A49T AT genotype were significantly younger than cases that carried the AA genotype, (mean age 66 years vs 71, P = 0.038). The SRD5A2 V89L and A49T polymorphisms were, however, not associated with altered prostate cancer risk. Further studies of the V89L polymorphism may lead to better understanding of the etiology of prostate cancer metastases.