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A 25 years experience of group-housed sows-reproduction in animal welfare-friendly systems.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature261597
Source
Acta Vet Scand. 2014;56:37
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Stig Einarsson
Ylva Sjunnesson
Fredrik Hultén
Lena Eliasson-Selling
Anne-Marie Dalin
Nils Lundeheim
Ulf Magnusson
Source
Acta Vet Scand. 2014;56:37
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animal Husbandry - standards
Animal Welfare - legislation & jurisprudence - standards
Animals
Female
Housing, Animal - standards
Sus scrofa - physiology
Sweden
Time Factors
Abstract
Since January 1 2013, group housing of sows has been compulsory within the European Union (EU) in all pig holdings with more than ten sows. Sows and gilts need to be kept in groups from 4 weeks after service to 1 week before the expected time of farrowing (Article 3(4) of Directive 2008/120/EC on the protection of pigs). The legislation regarding group housing was adopted already in 2001 and a long transitional period was allowed to give member states and producers enough time for adaptation. Even so, group housing of sows still seems to be uncommon in the EU, and is also uncommon in commercial pig farming systems in the rest of the world. In this review we share our experience of the Swedish 25 years of animal welfare legislation stipulating that sows must be loose-housed which de facto means group housed. The two most important concerns related to reproductive function among group-housed sows are the occurrence of lactational oestrus when sows are group-housed during lactation, and the stress that is associated with group housing during mating and gestation. Field and clinical observations in non-lactating, group-housed sows in Sweden suggest that by making basic facts known about the pig reproductive physiology related to mating, we might achieve application of efficient batch-wise breeding without pharmacological interventions. Group housing of lactating sows has some production disadvantages and somewhat lower productivity would likely have to be expected. Recordings of behavioural indicators in different housing systems suggest a lower welfare level in stalled animals compared with group-housed ones. However, there are no consistent effects on the reproductive performance associated with different housing systems. Experimental studies suggest that the most sensitive period, regarding disturbance of reproductive functions by external stressors, is the time around oestrus. We conclude that by keeping sows according to the pig welfare-friendly Directive 2008/120/EC, it is possible to combine group-housing of sows with good reproductive performance and productivity. However, substantially increased research and development is needed to optimize these systems.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24910081 View in PubMed
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Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae seroprevalence in farmed wild boars in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature261057
Source
J Zoo Wildl Med. 2014 Dec;45(4):813-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2014
Author
Outi Hälli
Eve Ala-Kurikka
Per Wallgren
Mari Heinonen
Source
J Zoo Wildl Med. 2014 Dec;45(4):813-8
Date
Dec-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Actinobacillus Infections - epidemiology - microbiology - veterinary
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae - isolation & purification
Animal Husbandry
Animals
Finland - epidemiology
Seroepidemiologic Studies
Sus scrofa
Abstract
The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of serum antibodies to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP) in Finnish farmed wild boars and to evaluate basic risk factors for seropositivity of the agent. A sampling frame was compiled based on the national record of wild boar farmers (n = 117), and 26 herds were included in the study. Serum samples (n = 206) were obtained from all animals slaughtered from these herds during the 2007-2008 period. Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay techniques were used to detect the possible presence of antibodies toward 12 serotypes of APP. Altogether, 1,442 analyses were performed, out of which 35 (2.4%) exceeded the positive cut-off value. Correspondingly, 26 of the pigs (12.6%) were found to be seropositive for any serotype of APP. The apparent animal prevalence of the cross-reacting APP serotypes 1, 9, and 11 was 3.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1-7%); it was 0.5% (CI 0-1%) for serotype 2; 3.4% (CI 1-6%) for serotypes 3, 6, and 8; 7.3% (CI 4-11%) for serotypes 4 and 7; 0.5% (CI 0-1%) for serotype 10; and 1.5% (CI 0-3%) for serotype 12. No antibodies against serotype 5s were detected. The apparent farm prevalence of APP serotypes 1,9, and 11 was 15.4% (CI 2-29%); that of serotype 2 was 3.8% (CI 0-11%); that of serotypes 3, 6, and 8 was 11.5% (CI 0-24%); that of serotypes 4 and 7 was 34.6% (CI 16-53%); that of serotype 10 was 3.8% (CI 0-11%); and that of serotype 12 was 7.7% (CI 0-18%). In conclusion, the prevalence of serum antibodies to different APP serotypes was low in farmed wild boar. Risk factor analysis did not reveal any significant animal- or herd-level risk factors for seropositivity of the agent.
PubMed ID
25632667 View in PubMed
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Aggression and cortisol levels in three different group housing routines for lactating sows.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature269836
Source
Acta Vet Scand. 2015;57:9
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Ola Thomsson
Ann-Sofi Bergqvist
Ylva Sjunnesson
Lena Eliasson-Selling
Nils Lundeheim
Ulf Magnusson
Source
Acta Vet Scand. 2015;57:9
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aggression
Animal Husbandry - methods
Animals
Female
Housing, Animal
Hydrocortisone - metabolism
Lactation
Organic Agriculture
Saliva - chemistry
Sus scrofa
Sweden
Abstract
Lactating sows in Swedish organic piglet production are commonly group-housed with piglets in a multi-suckling pen within 14 days after farrowing. Nursing behaviour may be disturbed when lactating sows are moved to a new environment and mixed with other sows, as they spend more time fighting with other sows and exploring the new surroundings. This can disrupt the inhibitory effect of suckling on ovarian activity and increase the risk of lactational oestrus, making efficient reproductive management difficult. Therefore this study evaluated aggression and levels of the stress hormone cortisol in lactating sows group-housed together with their piglets at one (W1), two (W2) or three (W3) weeks post farrowing.
There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the three management routines (W1, W2, W3) regarding number of attacks initiated or received in the mixed group. After mixing, W2 sows had a lower number of shoulder scratches (P
Notes
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PubMed ID
25884361 View in PubMed
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Alaria alata Mesocercariae among Feral Cats and Badgers, Denmark.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature273160
Source
Emerg Infect Dis. 2015 Oct;21(10):1872-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2015
Author
Nao Takeuchi-Storm
Mohammed N S Al-Sabi
Stig M Thamsborg
Heidi L Enemark
Source
Emerg Infect Dis. 2015 Oct;21(10):1872-4
Date
Oct-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Cats - parasitology
Denmark - epidemiology
Humans
Mustelidae - parasitology
Sus scrofa - parasitology
Swine - parasitology
Trematoda - pathogenicity
Zoonoses - epidemiology - parasitology - transmission
Notes
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PubMed ID
26402302 View in PubMed
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Analysis of spatio-temporal patterns of African swine fever cases in Russian wild boar does not reveal an endemic situation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature265069
Source
Prev Vet Med. 2014 Nov 15;117(2):317-25
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-15-2014
Author
M. Lange
H. Siemen
S. Blome
H-H Thulke
Source
Prev Vet Med. 2014 Nov 15;117(2):317-25
Date
Nov-15-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
African Swine Fever - epidemiology - virology
African Swine Fever Virus - growth & development
Algorithms
Animals
Animals, Wild
Computer simulation
Endemic Diseases - veterinary
Russia - epidemiology
Spatio-Temporal Analysis
Sus scrofa - virology
Swine
Abstract
African swine fever (ASF) is a highly lethal viral disease of domestic pigs and wild boar. ASF was introduced into the southern Russian Federation in 2007 and is now reported to be spreading in populations of wild and domestic suids. An endemic situation in the local wild boar population would significantly complicate management of the disease in the livestock population. To date no sound method exists for identifying the characteristic pattern of an endemic situation, which describes infection persisting from generation to generation in the same population. To support urgent management decisions at the wildlife-livestock interface, a new algorithm was constructed to test the hypothesis of an endemic disease situation in wildlife on the basis of case reports. The approach described here uses spatial and temporal associations between observed diagnostic data to discriminate between endemic and non-endemic patterns of case occurrence. The algorithm was validated with data from an epidemiological simulation model and applied to ASF case data from southern Russia. Based on the algorithm and the diagnostic data available, the null hypothesis of an endemic situation of ASF in wild boar of the region was rejected.
PubMed ID
25205556 View in PubMed
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Antimicrobial usage in 60 Swedish farrow-to-finish pig herds.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature274480
Source
Prev Vet Med. 2015 Oct 1;121(3-4):257-64
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1-2015
Author
Marie Sjölund
Annette Backhans
Christina Greko
Ulf Emanuelson
Ann Lindberg
Source
Prev Vet Med. 2015 Oct 1;121(3-4):257-64
Date
Oct-1-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Animal Husbandry - methods
Animals
Anti-Infective Agents - therapeutic use
Drug Administration Routes - veterinary
Female
Sus scrofa
Sweden
Abstract
The aim of this study was to quantify antimicrobial consumption in Swedish farrow-to-finish pig herds. Sixty herds with 100 sows or more producing more than 500 fatteners per year participated in a study where data on antimicrobial consumption over a period of one year were collected. Data on antimicrobial use were collected by substance, administration route and per age category. Antimicrobial use was measured as defined daily doses and expressed as treatment incidence (TI) per 1000 pig-days at risk. The TIs for growing pigs varied between herds, from 1.6 to 116.0 with a median of 14.3. The highest TI was recorded for suckling piglets with a median of 54.7 (range; 1.6-367.9), while the median TIs for weaners, fatteners and adults were 6.2, 2.8 and 8.4, respectively (range; 0.0-260.5; 0.0-64.9; 0.0-45.0, respectively). The within herd TIs for the different age categories were not correlated. Individual treatment, mainly consisting of injectables, was the most common form of application except for weaners for which a majority (54.8%) of the treatments were group treatments. Benzylpenicillin was the most commonly applied substance except for weaners for which oral formulations of tylosin were most common. For fatteners, group treatments constituted 8.4% of the total TI. Group treatments with oral colistin were applied to suckling piglets in five herds. Group treatments were not applied to adult pigs. The TI for weaners was significantly lower for specific pathogen-free herds. The results show that the overall antimicrobial use in Swedish farrow-to-finish pig herds varied to a great extent, and the between-herd variation indicates that there is room for improvement of pig health. Targeting suckling piglets may be most beneficial, but further studies are required to identify specific focus areas which may reduce the need for antimicrobials in this particular age group.
PubMed ID
26211838 View in PubMed
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Application of Bayesian techniques to model the burden of human salmonellosis attributable to U.S. food commodities at the point of processing: adaptation of a Danish model.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature101899
Source
Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2011 Apr;8(4):509-16
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2011
Author
Chuanfa Guo
Robert M Hoekstra
Carl M Schroeder
Sara Monteiro Pires
Kanyin Liane Ong
Emma Hartnett
Alecia Naugle
Jane Harman
Patricia Bennett
Paul Cieslak
Elaine Scallan
Bonnie Rose
Kristin G Holt
Bonnie Kissler
Evelyne Mbandi
Reza Roodsari
Frederick J Angulo
Dana Cole
Author Affiliation
Food Safety and Inspection Service, Washington, District of Columbia, USA.
Source
Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2011 Apr;8(4):509-16
Date
Apr-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Bayes Theorem
Cattle
Databases, Factual
Denmark
Eggs - microbiology
Food Handling
Food Microbiology
Humans
Meat - microbiology
Models, Biological
Population Surveillance
Poultry
Prevalence
Public Health Informatics - methods
Risk Management - methods
Salmonella - isolation & purification
Salmonella Food Poisoning - epidemiology - microbiology - prevention & control
Sus scrofa
United States - epidemiology
Abstract
Mathematical models that estimate the proportion of foodborne illnesses attributable to food commodities at specific points in the food chain may be useful to risk managers and policy makers to formulate public health goals, prioritize interventions, and document the effectiveness of mitigations aimed at reducing illness. Using human surveillance data on laboratory-confirmed Salmonella infections from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Salmonella testing data from U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service's regulatory programs, we developed a point-of-processing foodborne illness attribution model by adapting the Hald Salmonella Bayesian source attribution model. Key model outputs include estimates of the relative proportions of domestically acquired sporadic human Salmonella infections resulting from contamination of raw meat, poultry, and egg products processed in the United States from 1998 through 2003. The current model estimates the relative contribution of chicken (48%), ground beef (28%), turkey (17%), egg products (6%), intact beef (1%), and pork (
PubMed ID
21235394 View in PubMed
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Assessing the Risk of African Swine Fever Introduction into the European Union by Wild Boar.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature269161
Source
Transbound Emerg Dis. 2015 Jun;62(3):272-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2015
Author
A. De la Torre
J. Bosch
I. Iglesias
M J Muñoz
L. Mur
B. Martínez-López
M. Martínez
J M Sánchez-Vizcaíno
Source
Transbound Emerg Dis. 2015 Jun;62(3):272-9
Date
Jun-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
African Swine Fever - epidemiology
African Swine Fever Virus - isolation & purification
Animals
Disease Outbreaks
Europe - epidemiology
European Union
Risk factors
Russia - epidemiology
Sus scrofa - virology
Swine
Abstract
The presence of African swine fever (ASF) in the Caucasus region and Russian Federation has increased concerns that wild boars may introduce the ASF virus into the European Union (EU). This study describes a semi-quantitative approach for evaluating the risk of ASF introduction into the EU by wild boar movements based on the following risk estimators: the susceptible population of (1) wild boars and (2) domestic pigs in the country of origin; the outbreak density in (3) wild boars and (4) domestic pigs in the countries of origin, the (5) suitable habitat for wild boars along the EU border; and the distance between the EU border and the nearest ASF outbreak in (6) wild boars or (7) domestic pigs. Sensitivity analysis was performed to identify the most influential risk estimators. The highest risk was found to be concentrated in Finland, Romania, Latvia and Poland, and wild boar habitat and outbreak density were the two most important risk estimators. Animal health authorities in at-risk countries should be aware of these risk estimators and should communicate closely with wild boar hunters and pig farmers to rapidly detect and control ASF.
PubMed ID
23926953 View in PubMed
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Assessment of the risk of African swine fever introduction into Finland using NORA-a rapid tool for semiquantitative assessment of the risk.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature291764
Source
Transbound Emerg Dis. 2017 Dec; 64(6):2113-2125
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Dec-2017
Author
J Kyyrö
L Sahlström
T Lyytikäinen
Author Affiliation
Risk Assessment Research Unit, Research and Laboratory Department, Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Transbound Emerg Dis. 2017 Dec; 64(6):2113-2125
Date
Dec-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
African Swine Fever - epidemiology - virology
African Swine Fever Virus - physiology
Animals
Finland - epidemiology
Risk assessment
Sus scrofa
Swine
Abstract
The NORA rapid risk assessment tool was developed for situations where there is a change in the disease status of easily transmissible animal diseases in neighbouring countries or in countries with significant interactions with Finland. The goal was to develop a tool that is quick to use and will provide consistent results to support risk management decisions. The model contains 63 questions that define the potential for entry and exposure by nine different pathways. The magnitude of the consequences is defined by 23 statements. The weight of different pathways is defined according to the properties of the assessed disease. The model was built as an Excel spreadsheet and is intended for use by animal health control administrators. As an outcome, the model gives the possible pathways of disease entry into the country, an overall approximation for the probability of entry and the subsequent exposure, an overall estimate for the consequences and a combined overall risk estimate (probability multiplied by magnitude of consequences). Model validity was assessed by expert panels. Outside Africa, African swine fever is currently established in Russia and Sardinia. In addition, there have been cases in both wild boar and domestic pigs in Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Estonia. Finland has frequent contacts with Russia and Estonia, especially through passengers. The risk of African swine fever (ASF) introduction into Finland was tested with NORA for the situation in December 2015, when ASF was endemic in many parts of Russia, Africa and Sardinia and was present in Baltic countries and in Poland. African swine fever was assessed to have a high probability of entry into Finland, with high consequences and therefore a high overall risk.
PubMed ID
28303673 View in PubMed
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Attitudes and Beliefs of Pig Farmers and Wild Boar Hunters Towards Reporting of African Swine Fever in Bulgaria, Germany and the Western Part of the Russian Federation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature277755
Source
Transbound Emerg Dis. 2016 Apr;63(2):e194-204
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2016
Author
T. Vergne
C. Guinat
P. Petkova
A. Gogin
D. Kolbasov
S. Blome
S. Molia
J. Pinto Ferreira
B. Wieland
H. Nathues
D U Pfeiffer
Source
Transbound Emerg Dis. 2016 Apr;63(2):e194-204
Date
Apr-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
African Swine Fever - prevention & control
Animal Husbandry - methods
Animals
Bulgaria
Communicable Disease Control - methods
Disease Outbreaks - prevention & control - veterinary
Farmers
Germany
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Logistic Models
Russia
Sus scrofa - virology
Swine - virology
Abstract
This study investigated the attitudes and beliefs of pig farmers and hunters in Germany, Bulgaria and the western part of the Russian Federation towards reporting suspected cases of African swine fever (ASF). Data were collected using a web-based questionnaire survey targeting pig farmers and hunters in these three study areas. Separate multivariable logistic regression models identified key variables associated with each of the three binary outcome variables whether or not farmers would immediately report suspected cases of ASF, whether or not hunters would submit samples from hunted wild boar for diagnostic testing and whether or not hunters would report wild boar carcasses. The results showed that farmers who would not immediately report suspected cases of ASF are more likely to believe that their reputation in the local community would be adversely affected if they were to report it, that they can control the outbreak themselves without the involvement of veterinary services and that laboratory confirmation would take too long. The modelling also indicated that hunters who did not usually submit samples of their harvested wild boar for ASF diagnosis, and hunters who did not report wild boar carcasses are more likely to justify their behaviour through a lack of awareness of the possibility of reporting. These findings emphasize the need to develop more effective communication strategies targeted at pig farmers and hunters about the disease, its epidemiology, consequences and control methods, to increase the likelihood of early reporting, especially in the Russian Federation where the virus circulates.
PubMed ID
25100620 View in PubMed
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76 records – page 1 of 8.