STUDY OBJECTIVES: To determine if the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage 0 (subjects at risk for COPD) provides information about long-term mortality risk. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: From 1972 to 1975, clinical, physiologic, and biochemical parameters including respiratory symptoms, spirometry, and physical fitness were measured in 1,999 healthy men aged 40 to 59 years in an occupational cohort, of whom 1,623 had acceptable spirometry findings. In a proportional hazards model with follow-up until 2000, we assessed all-cause mortality according to GOLD stage 0, I, II, and III compared with "normal" subjects, after adjusting for known risk factors and potential confounders. RESULTS: After 26 years (range, 25 to 27 years), 615 men (38%) had died. In multivariate proportional hazards models, GOLD stage 0 subjects had a nonsignificantly increased hazard of death (hazard ratio [HR], 1.19; p = 0.21) after adjustment for age, smoking, physical fitness, body mass index, systolic BP, and serum cholesterol. Similarly, subjects in GOLD stage I (HR, 1.30; p = 0.05) and stage II (HR, 1.77; p
Chronic heart failure (HF) is in part characterized by immune activation and inflammation, and factors that regulate lymphocyte trafficking and inflammation may contribute to the progression of this disorder. The homeostatic chemokine CCL21 is a potent regulator of T-cell migration into non-lymphoid tissue and may exert inflammatory properties and influence tissue remodelling. We therefore investigated CCL21 levels and association with fatal outcomes in patients with chronic HF.
Plasma CCL21 was measured at randomization in 1456 patients enrolled in the Controlled Rosuvastatin Multinational Trial in HF (CORONA) and in 1145 from the GISSI-HF trial. Association between CCL21 levels [given below as hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for 1 SD increase] with all-cause (n = 741) or cardiovascular (CV) mortality (n = 576) was evaluated with multivariable Cox proportional hazard models, adjusting for clinical risk factors, C-reactive protein, and NT-proBNP. In multivariable Cox models, CCL21 was associated with higher risk of all-cause mortality (HR 1.16, 95% CI 1.02-1.32; P = 0.020) and CV mortality (HR 1.20, 95% CI 1.08-1.33; P
Data on the outcome of cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator (CRT-D) in patients developing ventricular arrhythmias are limited.
To evaluate the prognostic value of ventricular tachycardia (VT) or ventricular fibrillation (VF) episodes by heart rate in patients enrolled in the Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial-Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy trial.
Slow VT was defined as VTs with heart rate 250 beats/min) were considered as a combined category. Primary end point was heart failure (HF) or death. Secondary end point included all-cause mortality.
There were 228 (12.7%) patients with slow VT and 198 (11.1%) with fast VT/VF. In time-dependent analysis, slow VT was associated with an increased risk of HF/death in CRT-D patients with left branch bundle block (LBBB; hazard ratio [HR] 3.19; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.83-5.55; P
OBJECTIVE: The first changes in the diabetic kidney are glycogen deposits in the epithelial cells of the thick ascending limb of Henle. These cells produce Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP). Is low excretion of THP associated with the development of renal insufficiency or cardiovascular disease? MATERIAL AND METHODS: Urine samples were collected at baseline in patients with type 1 (n = 131) and type 2 (n = 108) diabetes who were followed for a mean of 14 years (range 1-20 years) and 4.5 years (range 1-15 years), respectively. RESULTS: Twenty percent of type 1 and 54% of type 2 diabetic patients died and 24% and 29%, respectively developed uraemia. A decreased urinary concentration of THP (u-THP) was associated with an eight-fold increased risk of renal failure and cardiovascular death in type 1 but not in type 2 diabetic patients, irrespective of the degree of albuminuria and glycosylated haemoglobin and blood pressure levels. There were no differences in the degrees of albuminuria, serum creatinine or u-THP between the two types of diabetic patients at baseline. Low u-THP occurred in 8% and 9% of normoalbuminuric type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients, respectively. CONCLUSION: A decreased u-THP was associated with an eight-fold increased risk of cardiovascular death and uraemia in type 1 but not in type 2 diabetic patients.
The KOORDINATA study (clinical epidemiological program of investigation of depression in cardiological practice in patients with arterial hypertension and ischemic heart disease) was a prospective 3 year long multicenter study of effects of depressive and anxiety states on the course and prognosis of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and arterial hypertension (AH).
Patients (n=5038, age more or equal 55 years) with verified IHD and/or AH from 37 cities were included into the study. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed by the HADS scale (Hospital Anxiety And Depression Scale) validated in Russia.
Clinically significant symptoms of anxiety ( more or equal 11 HADS) were present in 33 and 38%, of depression - in 30 and 38% of patients with IHD and AH, respectively. Presence of clinically manifested depression at initial examination increased 1.59 times combined risk of nonfatal and fatal cases (odds ratio [OR] 1.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.30-1.96, p=0.0001), 1.64 times - risk of cardiovascular death (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.20-2.24, p=0.0021), and 1.82 times - risk of death from all causes (OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.41-2.34, p=0.0001). It is known that for somatic patients crossover of anxiety and depression symptoms is typical (simultaneous presence of some symptoms of anxiety and depression). Total HADS score equal to 11 or more increased risk of all cause death (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.08-1.84, p=0.0111), as well as fatal and nonfatal events (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.08-1.65, p=0.0089).
Taking into consideration negative effect of depressive symptoms on prognosis it is recommended to screen patients with IHD in the first place those who have had myocardial infarction and brain stroke with the aim of detection of depression and anxiety depressive symptoms and subsequent their adequate correction.
COORDINATA - Russian multicenter prospective (3 year long) study having the aim to elucidate influence of symptoms of anxiety and depression on cardiovascular (CV) prognosis in patients with arterial hypertension (AH) and ischemic heart disease (IHD). Results of 1.5 years of prospective phase of the study are presented. Material and methods. Symptoms of depression and anxiety were assessed by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HDS) in 5038 patients with AH and/or IHD aged 55 years and older. By the end of 1.5 years follow up telephonic interview was carried out with 4449 patients or their relatives in the course of which occurrence of soft and hard end points (cardiovascular complications and deaths of IHD, cardiovascular and other causes) were established. There were 142 deaths (60.6% cardiovascular), 85 strokes, and 42 dynamic disturbances of cerebral circulation. Total number of hard and soft end points was 356 (8.0%). Presence of depressive, anxious, and combined anxious-depressive symptoms in patients with AH/IHD at initial examination increased 1.5 - 2 fold risk of development of cardiovascular catastrophes and death (due to IHD, CV and all causes). Besides psychological factors clear-cut influence on prognosis exerted sex, age, level of education and income of patients, smoking (both in the past and at inclusion in the study), low level of daily physical activity, elevated levels of blood pressure and heart rate, as well as a row of social characteristics of patients.
Aortic stiffness is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. However, the rate of progression of arterial stiffness and the role of cardiovascular risk factors in the progression of arterial stiffness has never been established in a longitudinal study. In a prospective, longitudinal, observational study, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and carotid-radial pulse wave velocity were assessed in 109 hemodialysis patients at baseline and after a mean follow-up of 1.2 years. We examined the impact of age, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, dialysis vintage, and pentosidine (a well-characterized, advanced glycation end products) on the rate of progression of aortic stiffness. The annual rate of changes in carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and carotid-radial pulse wave velocity were 0.84 m/s per year (95% confidence interval, 0.50-1.12 m/s per year) and -0.66 m/s per year (95% confidence interval, -0.85 to -0.47 m/s per year), respectively. Older subjects, and patients with diabetes mellitus or atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease had higher aortic stiffness at baseline, however, the rate of progression of aortic stiffness was only determined by plasma pentosidine levels (P=0.001). The degree of baseline aortic stiffness was a significant determinant of the regression of brachial stiffness (P
Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is known to be associated with mortality, but its association with age-related decline in physical functioning and the development of disability is less clear. This study examined the associations between LTL and physical functioning, and investigated whether LTL predicts level of physical functioning over an 11-year follow-up. Older mono- (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twin sisters (n = 386) participated in the study. Relative LTL was measured by qPCR at baseline. Physical functioning was measured by 6-min walking distance and level of physical activity (PA). Walking distance was measured at baseline and at 3-year follow-up. PA was assessed by questionnaire at baseline and at 3- and 11-year follow-ups. The baseline analysis was performed with path models, adjusted with age and within-pair dependence of twin pairs. The longitudinal analysis was performed with a repeated measures linear model adjusted for age and longitudinal within-pair dependence. A nonrandom missing data analysis was utilized. At baseline, in all individuals, LTL was associated with PA (est. 0.14, SE 0.06, p = 0.011), but not with walking distance. Over the follow-up, a borderline significant association was observed between LTL and walking distance (est. 0.14, SE 0.07, p = 0.060) and a significant association between LTL and PA (est. 0.19, SE 0.06, p = 0.001). The results suggest that LTL is associated with PA and may, therefore, serve as a biomarker predicting the development of disability. Longitudinal associations between LTL and PA were observed only when nonrandom data missingness was taken into account in the analysis.
To assess prevalence, incidence, prognosis and progression of degenerative valvular aortic stenosis (AS).
The Tromsø Study and the University Hospital of North Norway.
Population based prospective study.
Over a 14 year span we performed three repeated echocardiographic examinations (1994, 2001 and 2008) of a random sample of initially 3273 participants. Data from the only hospital serving this population were included.
There were 164 subjects with AS. Prevalence consistently increased with age, average values being 0.2% in the 50-59 year cohort, 1.3% in the 60-69 year cohort, 3.9% in the 70-79 year cohort and 9.8% in the 80-89 year cohort. The incidence rate in the study was 4.9‰/year. The mean annual increase in mean transvalvular pressure gradient was 3.2 mm Hg. The increase was lower in mild AS than in more severe disease, disclosing a non-linear development of the gradient, but with large individual variations. Mortality was not significantly increased in the asymptomatic AS-group (HR = 1.28), nor in those who received aortic valve replacement (n = 34, HR = 0.93), compared with the general population.
This is the first study to document the incidence and prognosis of AS in a general population with surgery as a treatment option. It reveals an accelerated progression of the aortic mean gradient as the disease advances. The prognosis of AS seems to be comparable with the normal population in the asymptomatic stage and after successful surgery, indicating that the follow-up and timing of surgery has been adequate for this patient group.