Time-related trends in age-standardized cancer mortality have been suggested to be the best single measure of the progress--or lack of progress--in cancer control measures. The paper presents data on trends in Sweden during 1960-1986. From the middle of the 1970s, total cancer mortality decreased significantly among both males and females. The estimated annual decrease between 1975 and 1986 was 0.5-1.2%. Current Swedish trends are thus in keeping with the goal stated in the European Community's action programme 'Europe against cancer': a 10-15% decrease in total age-standardized cancer mortality by the year 2000. This goal might even be too conservative, because most of the cancer control measures in 'Europe against cancer' will not be able to enhance the current downward trends until the early 1990s.
50 patients were treated for multiple myeloma with 5-drug combination chemotherapy between Jan 1979 and Feb 1980. After 8 years 12 patients (24%) were alive. The relative age-adjusted survival rate was 27%. The risk of death was constant during the follow-up, and active myelomatosis was still the main cause of death during the 8th yr. Thus the treatment is not curative. All 7 long-term survivors initially at stages II or III had at least a 75% response to the primary treatment. The other 5 patients were initially in an early stage (I) of their disease. Acute leukaemia has developed in 2 patients.
We analyzed the survival trend after cancer was diagnosed by complete follow-up through 1986 of 591,456 (99.4%) of all those patients in whom a first malignant disease was diagnosed in Sweden from 1960 to 1984. From 1960-1964 to 1980-1984, the 5-year relative survival increased from 34.2% to 47.1% in males and from 48.7% to 56.9% in females. The mean loss of expected life among cancer patients decreased from 9.6 to 7.0 years. During the first 5 years after diagnosis, the cancer-specific hazard rate decreased by 34% in males and 30% in females. Thus several analytical approaches revealed a substantial increase in cancer patient survival since 1960.
Comment In: J Natl Cancer Inst. 1991 Apr 17;83(8):579-802005642
The prognostic value of histopathologic grading of oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) has varied from not any to highly significant. We have retrospectively studied all (130) SCCs registered in Norway 1963-72 in the buccal and maxillary alveolar mucosa. From 68 of these cases biopsy specimens of acceptable quality were obtained. Broders' method of grading was compared with a modification of a recent malignancy grading system recommended by Anneroth et al. which was performed only within the histologically most invasive areas of the tumors. Cox's multivariate survival analyses showed that this grading in the invasive sites had highly significant prognostic value. Broders grade had no prognostic value. The stage of tumor had also prognostic value. These highly significant results indicate that the histologically invasive areas may be primarily responsible for the clinical behavior of the tumor, and this may be of importance for the choice of therapy for oral SCC.
Peritonitis in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD): a multi-centre randomized clinical trial comparing the Y connector disinfectant system to standard systems. Canadian CAPD Clinical Trials Group.
Sixty-one new continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients were allocated to a Y connector-disinfectant (Amuchina, Italy) and 63 to standard systems (Baxter Systems II & III) in a randomized clinical trial addressing peritonitis rates in 8 CAPD programs in 6 Canadian cities. In the Y connector-disinfectant group, 15 patients experienced 21 episodes of peritonitis in 452 15 patients experienced 21 episodes of peritonitis in 452 patient-months or 1 per 21.53 patient-months. In the standard systems group, 30 patients experienced 47 episodes of peritonitis in 467 patient-months or 1 per 9.93 patient-months (p = 0.009). The peritonitis risk reduction was 61% (95% confidence limits 27-79%). Exit-site infections occurred in 36% of each group. Prior to the development of exit-site infection, the monthly risk for peritonitis was 3.12% for the Y connector disinfectant system and 7.37% for the standard system. After an exit-site infection, these probabilities increased to 6.15% and 15.47%, respectively. Skin organisms were responsible for peritonitis in 8/21 (38%) in the Y connector-disinfectant group and 30/47 (64%) in the standard group. There were 75 days hospitalized for peritonitis in the Y connector-disinfectant group compared to 257 days for the standard group. The Y connector disinfectant system decreases the peritonitis rate through its effect on skin organisms. Exit-site injections are a major source of organisms responsible for peritonitis.
A survey of all patients (173 males and 294 females) registered with primary intraspinal neoplasms in the Norwegian Cancer Registry from 1955 through 1986 is presented. Annual age-adjusted incidence rates of new tumors per one million population were three for males and five for females. Altogether, 89% of the tumors were verified histologically. Meningioma was the most common tumor type, followed by ependymoma and neurilemoma. Intraspinal ependymomas accounted for 34.5% of all 223 ependymomas of the central nervous system, whereas only 0.2% of the 3046 glioblastomas were found intraspinally. Patients with intraspinal meningioma had a better life expectancy than those with intracranial meningioma. The 5-year relative survival rate for patients with intraspinal ependymoma was 88.9% in contrast to 24.4% for patients with intracranial ependymoma.
Survival after stroke and transient ischemic attack was studied in Söderhamn, Sweden, during the periods 1975-1979 and 1983-1987; 640 patients with first-ever stroke and 97 with first-ever transient ischemic attack were registered and followed for 1-3 years. Approximately 90% of the patients were treated in the Department of Internal Medicine of Söderhamn Hospital. The protocols for physical rehabilitation and antithrombotic treatment changed between study periods. Between periods, 3-year survival after stroke increased by 16% (p less than 0.003). The 95% confidence intervals of the relative survival rates were 0.524-0.648, 0.435-0.567, and 0.337-0.475 at 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively, during the first period and 0.616-0.728, 0.600-0.732, and 0.576-0.748 during the second period. Fewer patients suffered fatal complications of stroke during the second period. The rate of stroke recurrence was approximately 10%/year during both study periods. Four patients suffered fatal hemorrhage during the first period, but no patient did so during the second period. Observed survival after transient ischemic attack did not differ from that expected in the first 2 years of follow-up during either study period. The risk for stroke after transient ischemic attack was approximately 5%/year during both periods. The higher survival rates after stroke during the second period seems to be the result of fewer fatal complications rather than of a reduced risk for recurrent stroke.