The Canadian Forces' (CF) deployable hospital, 1 Canadian Field Hospital, was deployed to Haiti after an earthquake that caused massive devastation. Two surgical teams performed 167 operations over a 39-day period starting 17 days after the index event. Most operations were unrelated to the earthquake. Replacing or supplementing the destroyed local surgical capacity for a brief period after a disaster can be a valuable contribution to relief efforts. For future humanitarian operations/disaster response missions, the CF will study the feasibility of accelerating the deployment of surgical capabilities.
This paper reports preliminary and selected results of an analysis of the frequencies of 36 common surgical procedures in hospitals across Canada during the period April 1985 to March 1987. Age-sex-specific and age-sex-standardized procedure rates were calculated for each procedure for each of 245 Census Divisions (CDs) across Canada, as well as for 338 smaller urban areas (FSAs) within the province of Ontario. Special attention was given to adjusting the rates for differing population sizes of the geographical regions. Procedure rates were computed based on the residence of the patient, not on the location of the hospital. Graphical techniques, analysis of variance, and other statistical techniques were used to identify unusually high or low procedure rates and to determine effects due to differences in age, sex, and geographical region. The relationship of procedure rate to the socio-economic level of a region (as measured by the proportion of low-income individuals in the region) was analyzed.
To understand better the factors important to the safety of anaesthesia provided for day surgical procedures, we analyzed the intraoperative and immediate postoperative course of patients at four Canadian teaching hospitals' day treatment centres. After excluding those who received only monitored anaesthesia care, there were 6,914 adult (non-obstetrical) patients seen over a twelve-month period in 1988-89. The rate of adverse outcome consequent to their care was identified by a comprehensive surveillance system which included review of anaesthetic records (four hospitals) and follow-up telephone calls (two hospitals). The relationship between adverse events and preoperative factors was determined by using a multiple logistic regression analysis that included age, sex, duration of the procedure and the hospital care. There were no deaths during the study period and major morbid events were infrequent. Patient preoperative disease was predictive of some intraoperative events relating to the same organ system, but not to events in the PACU. Some unexpected relationships emerged including preoperative hypertension being related to a greater risk of difficult intubation, and neurological disease to perioperative cardiac abnormalities. Patients judged obese, or inadequately fasted, were found to experience a greater rate of recovery problems as well as discomfort. While the low response rate (36%) to the telephone interviews created a sampling bias, the high rate of patient dissatisfaction among those reached is disconcerting. We conclude that day surgical patients with preoperative medical conditions, even when optimally managed, are at higher risk for adverse events in the perioperative period.
Comment In: Can J Anaesth. 1993 Jan;40(1):79-818425250
Since 1973, Alberta's dental plan for the elderly has made government-sponsored, premium-free comprehensive care by dentists and denturists available to all residents of the province over age 64. Details on the numbers and types of different services provided were previously unavailable from the annual reports. However, an examination of the plan's six-million records, covering nearly 260,000 different patients from 1978 to 1992, has now made it possible, for the first time, to conduct a detailed analysis of these dental services. Many time-related changes have occurred in the types of services provided. The number of removable prosthodontic services declined from 14 per cent of all services offered by dentists in 1978-79 to five per cent of these services in 1991-1992, but the services provided by denturists increased by a factor of four. The relative number of surgical and restorative dentistry services offered by dentists also declined. Preventive services grew modestly, but periodontal services grew dramatically from three per cent of all services provided by dentists to 22 per cent. These shifts in services from prosthodontics, restorative dentistry and oral surgery to preventive and periodontic services have important implications for the planning and administration of dental plans for the elderly.
This study was undertaken in order to evaluate the incidence of operations for bleeding, perforated and obstructing peptic ulcers in a defined population before and after the introduction of H2-receptor antagonists. The annual incidence of surgery for all peptic ulcer complications increased slightly, from 6.9 per 10(5) individuals in 1977 to 14.2 per 10(5) in 1989 (n.s.), whereas the annual incidence of operations for ulcer bleeding and perforation remained relatively stable, varying from 2.8 to 8.9 per 10(5) inhabitants and from 2.3 to 7.5 per 10(5) inhabitants during the study period. Operations performed for gastric outlet obstruction did not increase, varying from 0.8 to 2.2 per 10(5) individuals over the study period. The annual proportion of emergency operations did not increase. Young men and old women were often operated on for bleeding (p less than 0.0001) and perforated ulcers (p less than 0.01). Duodenal ulcer bleeding and perforation were more frequent in the young patient groups. Overall mortality after operations performed for bleeding was 15%, and that after operations for perforation or obstruction, 17% and 8%, respectively. The mean age of the fatalities, 63 +/- 13 years, was significantly higher than that of those who survived after operation, 53 +/- 15 years (p 0.0001). Mortality was higher after operations for gastric ulcer complications (22%) than after operations for duodenal ulcer complications (10%) (p less than 0.01).
Regional Oncological Dispensary, Kostroma The study included 388 cancer patients (group 1) and 381 cases of other pathologies (group 2). Surgery on lymphoid organs was performed in 121 patients (31%) in group 1 and 150 in group 2. It was concluded that such intervention in the immune system was not an oncological hazard. That phenomenon might be accounted for by the specificity of immune response in patients suffering from such diseases.
To define the models of surgical service delivery in rural communities that rely solely on general practitioner (GP)-surgeons for emergency care, to examine how they have changed over the past decade and to identify some effects on communities that have lost their local surgical program.
We undertook a retrospective study using the Population Utilization Rates and Referrals For Easy Comparative Tables database (versions 6.0 and 9.0) and telephone interviews to hospitals that we identified. We included all hospitals in rural British Columbia with surgical programs that had no resident specialist surgeon and that relied on general practitioner-surgeons (GP-surgeons) for emergency surgical care. We examined surgical program characteristics, community size, distance from referral centre, role of itinerant surgery, where GPs were trained, their age and years of experience and referral rates for appendectomies and obstetrics.
Changes over the past decade include a decrease in the total number of GP-surgeons operating in these communities, more itinerant surgery and the loss of 3 of 12 programs. GP-surgeons are older, are usually foreign-trained and have more than 5 years of experience. Communities with no local program or that rely on solo practitioners refer more emergencies out of the community and do less maternity care than those with more than a single GP-surgeon.
GP-surgeons still play an integral role in the provision of emergency and elective surgical services in rural communities without the population base to sustain resident specialist surgeons. As GP-surgeons retire and surgical programs close, there is no accredited training program to replace them. More outcome comparisons between procedures performed by GP-surgeons and general surgeons are needed, as is the creation of a nationally accredited training program to replace these practitioners as they retire.
Cites: Can Med Assoc J. 1979 Apr 21;120(8):919436065
Cites: Am J Public Health. 1997 Jan;87(1):85-909065233
Cites: Can Fam Physician. 1998 Oct;44:2117-249805166
Cites: Can Fam Physician. 2005 Sep;51:1238-916926940
Cites: Can J Surg. 2008 Jun;51(3):179-8418682764
Cites: Am J Public Health. 1983 Apr;73(4):414-216829824
Cites: Can Med Assoc J. 1984 Mar 1;130(5):571-66697267
Cites: J Fam Pract. 1988 Oct;27(4):377-843171489
Cites: Am J Public Health. 1990 Jul;80(7):814-82356904
Cites: CMAJ. 1991 Jul 1;145(1):46-82049697
Cites: CMAJ. 1993 Nov 15;149(10):1541-58221438
Cites: CMAJ. 1995 Nov 15;153(10):1447-527585371
Cites: CMAJ. 1995 Nov 15;153(10):1453-47585372
Cites: Am J Public Health. 1996 Jul;86(7):1011-58669503
Cites: CMAJ. 1996 Aug 15;155(4):395-4018752064
Cites: Br J Gen Pract. 1997 Apr;47(417):205-109196961
Trauma surgeons increasingly care for emergency general surgery (EGS) patients. The extent to which trauma center (TC) performance improvement translates into improved quality for EGS is unknown. We hypothesized that EGS outcomes in TCs would be similar to outcomes in non-trauma centers (NTC); failure to support our hypothesis suggests that the effects of trauma performance improvement have extended beyond trauma patients.
We retrospectively studied EGS procedures at TCs versus NTCs among American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program participants (2005-2008). Thirty-day outcomes were overall morbidity, serious morbidity, and mortality. TC versus NTC outcomes were compared using regression modeling, observed-to-expected (O/E) ratios (among hospitals submitting =20 EGS procedures), and outlier status (hospitals whose O/E confidence interval excludes 1.0).
Of 68,003 patients at 222 hospitals, 42,264 (62.2%) were treated at 121 TCs; 25,739 (37.8%) were treated at 101 NTCs. TCs had significantly higher overall morbidity (21.4% versus 17.2%; p 0.099).
Although overall morbidity tended to favor NTCs, mortality was no different. This suggests that the trauma performance improvement processes have not been applied to EGS patients, despite being cared for by similar providers. Despite having processes for trauma, there remains the opportunity for quality improvement for EGS care.
Medical troops supply in local armed conflicts demonstrated advantages of fast evacuation of wounded personnel by aviation from the seat of combat actions to the stage of specialized surgical care. Wounded in head, breast, abdomen (particularly in case of multiple and combined character of wounds) are evacuated for treatment to central military hospitals equipped with modern diagnostic and medical equipment, completed with qualified specialists and having the opportunity of prolonged treatment. Surgical care in the zone of combat actions is confined to hemostasis, intensive therapy -to supporting of main vital functions. The article contains the data about terminations of wounded personnel treatment in central military-fleet clinical hospital.