Oxygen radicals in postischaemic damages in the kidney: M. Wolgast, A. Bayati, O. Hellberg, O. Källskog, K. Nygren and G. Ojteg, Inst. of Physiology and Medical Biophysics, University of Uppsala, Sweden; Ischemic acute renal failure is characterized by a severe depression of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), isosthenuria and deficient potassium secretion, whereas the total renal blood flow may remain largely intact. As to these symptoms, it would seem established that the depression of GFR results from an ischaemia-induced augmented aging and hence rejection of tubular cells, which thence blocks the tubular lumen. As expected this blockade can be prevented by osmotic diuretics. The isosthenuria and the deficient potassium excretion, on the other hand, results probably from a medullary ischaemia, the latter due to the action by oxygen-derived free radicals in the sense the subsequent damage to the capillary membrane leads to a massive extravasation of plasma and consequent intracapillary trapping of red cells. In line with this idea, superoxide-dismutase (SOD) or Allopurinol may ameliorate these changes. In the recovery phase of postischaemic renal failure, the most prominent feature is the blocking of the ascending loop of Henle with Tamm/Horsfall-protein which, if not washed-out during the first week, leads to a complete degeneration of the nephron. Unfortunately, the process would seem to be unaffected by treatment with e.g. osmotic diuretics and SOD or Allopurinol.