The weekly changes in ambient sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and temperature were compared with the figures for respiratory infection in children and adults and for absenteeism from day-care centers (DCC), schools, and workplaces during a 1-year period in Helsinki. The annual average level of sulfur dioxide was 21 micrograms/m3 and of nitrogen dioxide 47 micrograms/m3; the average temperature was +3.1 degrees C. The levels of these pollutants and the temperature were significantly correlated with the number of upper respiratory infections reported from health centers. Low temperature also correlated with increased frequency of acute tonsillitis, of lower respiratory tract infection among DCC children, and of absenteeism from day-care centers, schools and workplaces. Furthermore, a significant association was found between levels of sulfur dioxide and absenteeism. After statistical standardization for temperature, no other correlations were observed apart from that between high levels of sulfur dioxide and numbers of upper respiratory tract infections diagnosed at health centers (P = 0.04). When the concentrations of sulfur dioxide were above the mean, the frequency of the upper respiratory tract infections was 15% higher than that during the periods of low concentration. The relative importance of the effects of low-level air pollution and low temperature on health is difficult to assess.
Little attention has been devoted to the effects on children's respiratory health of exposure to sulphur dioxide (SO2) in ambient air from local industrial emissions. Most studies on the effects of SO(2) have assessed its impact as part of the regional ambient air pollutant mix.
To examine the association between exposure to stack emissions of SO(2) from petroleum refineries located in Montreal's (Quebec) east-end industrial complex and the prevalence of active asthma and poor asthma control among children living nearby.
The present cross-sectional study used data from a respiratory health survey of Montreal children six months to 12 years of age conducted in 2006. Of 7964 eligible households that completed the survey, 842 children between six months and 12 years of age lived in an area impacted by refinery emissions. Ambient SO(2) exposure levels were estimated using dispersion modelling. Log-binomial regression models were used to estimate crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% CIs for the association between yearly school and residential SO(2) exposure estimates and asthma outcomes. Adjustments were made for child's age, sex, parental history of atopy and tobacco smoke exposure at home.
The adjusted PR for the association between active asthma and SO(2) levels was 1.14 (95% CI 0.94 to 1.39) per interquartile range increase in modelled annual SO(2). The effect on poor asthma control was greater (PR=1.39 per interquartile range increase in modelled SO(2) [95% CI 1.00 to 1.94]).
Results of the present study suggest a relationship between exposure to refinery stack emissions of SO(2) and the prevalence of active and poor asthma control in children who live and attend school in proximity to refineries.
This study investigated whether chronic airflow limitation and rapid decline in pulmonary function were associated with peak exposures to ozone and other irritant gases in pulp mills. Bleachery workers potentially exposed to irritant gassings (n = 178) from three Swedish pulp mills, and a comparison group of workers not exposed to irritant gassings (n = 54) from two paper mills, were studied. Baseline surveys occurred in 1995-1996, with follow-up surveys in 1998-1999. Participants performed spirometry and answered questions regarding ozone, chlorine dioxide (ClO2), and sulphur dioxide (SO2) gassings. From regression models controlling for potential confounders, declines in both the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) (-24 mL x yr(-1)) and the forced vital capacity (FVC) (-19 mL x yr(-1)) were associated with ClO2/SO2 gassings. At follow-up, the prevalence of chronic airflow limitation (i.e. FEV1/FVC less than the lower limit of normal) was elevated for participants with only pre-baseline ozone gassings and with both pre-baseline and interval ozone gassings, after controlling for potential confounders. These findings suggest that obstructive effects among bleachery workers are associated with ozone gassings, and that adverse effects on spirometry might also accompany chlorine dioxide/sulphur dioxide gassings. Peak exposures to irritant gases in pulp mills should be prevented.
Epidemiological studies have demonstrated associations between short-term increases in outdoor air pollution concentrations and adverse cardiovascular effects, including cardiac mortality and hospitalizations. One possible mechanism behind this association is that air pollution exposure increases the risk of developing a cardiac arrhythmia. To investigate this hypothesis, dates of implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) discharges were abstracted from patient records in patients attending the two ICD clinics in Vancouver, BC, for the years 1997-2000. Daily outdoor air pollutant concentrations and daily meteorological data from the Vancouver region were obtained for the same 4-yr period. Generalized estimating equations were used to assess the association between short-term increases in air pollutant concentrations and ICD discharges while controlling for temporal trends, meteorology, and serial correlation in the data. Air pollution concentrations in the Vancouver region were relatively low from 1997 to 2000, as expected. In the 50 patients who resided within the Vancouver region and who experienced at least 1 ICD discharge during the period of follow-up, no significant associations between increased air pollution concentrations and increased ICD discharges were present. When the patient sample was restricted to the 16 patients who had at least 6 months of follow-up and experienced a rate of at least 2 days with ICD discharges per year, there was a statistically significant association between increased sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) concentration and ICD discharge 2 days after the SO(2) increase. When stratified by season, no associations between increased air pollutant concentrations and increased risk of ICD discharge were observed in the summer, although for several pollutants, concentration increases were associated with a decrease in ICD discharges. In the winter, increased SO(2) concentrations again were seen to be associated with increased risk of ICD discharge, at both 2 and 3 days following increases in SO(2) concentrations. These findings provide no compelling evidence that short-term increases in relatively low concentrations of outdoor air pollutants have an adverse effect on individuals at risk of cardiac arrhythmias. The findings regarding SO(2) are difficult to interpret. They may be chance findings. Alternatively, given the very low concentrations of SO(2) that were present in Vancouver, SO(2) may have been serving as a surrogate measure of other environmental or meteorological factors.
There is some evidence linking air pollution to cardiovascular morbidity. Our aim was to examine whether there is a correlation between air pollution and cardiovascular morbidity in the city of Trondheim, Norway.
We compared the mean daily number of admissions for cardiovascular disease to the St. Olav University hospital on days with relatively low and high levels of PM10 (1993-2001), PM2,5, NO, NO2, SO2, O3, toluene and paraxylene (1998-2001). A time series analysis was carried out to see how day-to-day variations in concentrations of air pollutants correlated with the number of hospitalizations for cardiovascular disease.
In the bivariate analysis, the mean daily number of hospitalizations was found to be significantly higher (p
Air pollution referable to increased ambient levels of sulfur dioxide and suspended particulates is associated with increased episodes of acute bronchitis and is also causally related to some cases of chronic bronchitis. Oxidant air pollution is associated with abnormalities of pulmonary function in children and is a major contributory factor in COP, especially bronchitis, in some areas of the United States. The relationship of nitrogen dioxide atmospheric contamination to COPD is still controversial. In our opinion, the epidemiologic studies conducted to date have been inadequate and further elucidation is indicated. Cadmium fumes and compounds have been found to be instrumental in the development of some cases of chronic bronchitis and emphysema in Sweden. This association is unproved in the United States and warrants a thorough clinical and epidemiologic evaluation.
To examine the role that ambient air pollution plays in exacerbating cardiovascular disease hospitalization in Windsor, Ontario.
The number of daily cardiac hospital admissions was obtained from all Windsor hospitals from April 1, 1995 to December 31, 2000 and linked to concentrations of ambient air pollutants and weather variables. The logarithm of daily counts of hospitalization was regressed on the levels of pollutants, after adjusting for seasonal, weekly cycles, and weather variables using time series analysis with natural splines as smoothing functions.
Of all the pollutants considered, sulphur dioxide (SO2) had the strongest effect on cardiac hospitalization among the > or = 65 age group. The percentage increase in daily admission was 2.6% for current day sulphur dioxide level (95% CI: 0.5-6.4), 4.0% for 2-day mean level (95% CI: 0.1-6.9), and 5.6% (95% CI: 1.5-9.9) for 3-day mean level for an increase in interquartile range of 19.3 ppb. When particulate PM10 was included in the model, the contributing effect of sulphur dioxide remained significant for the > or = 65 age group for all three levels.
Short-term effects of sulphur dioxide are associated significantly to daily cardiac hospital admissions for people > or = 65 years of age living in Windsor. Since Windsor is a border city, additional monitoring and assessment is recommended to determine if air quality and resultant health effects have deteriorated since traffic congestion at the border has increased following the events of September 11, 2001.
Cites: J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 2000 Jul;50(7):1199-20610939212
Cites: Eur Respir J. 2001 Apr;17(4):604-811401052
Cites: Circulation. 2001 Jun 12;103(23):2810-511401937
Cites: Epidemiology. 2001 Jul;12(4):413-911416779
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2001 Aug;109 Suppl 4:523-711544157
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2001 Dec;109 Suppl 6:827-4311744501
Cites: Epidemiology. 2003 Jan;14(1):18-2312500041
Cites: Environ Res. 2003 Jan;91(1):8-2012550083
Cites: Eur Heart J. 2003 Apr;24(8):752-6012713769
Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 2003 Jun 15;157(12):1055-6512796040
Cites: Circulation. 2004 Jan 6;109(1):71-714676145
Cites: Lancet. 1995 Jan 21;345(8943):176-87741860
Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 1995 Jul 1;142(1):15-227785669
Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 1995 Jul 1;142(1):23-357785670
Cites: Am J Public Health. 1995 Oct;85(10):1361-57573618
Cites: Am J Public Health. 1996 Sep;86(9):1273-808806380
Cites: Epidemiology. 1997 Jul;8(4):371-79209849
Cites: Epidemiology. 1997 Mar;8(2):162-79229208
Cites: Occup Environ Med. 1997 Aug;54(8):535-409326156
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 1998 Oct;106(10):649-539755140
Cites: J Toxicol Environ Health A. 1998 Oct 9;55(3):185-969772102
Cites: Epidemiology. 1999 Jan;10(1):17-229888275
Cites: Arch Environ Health. 1999 Mar-Apr;54(2):130-910094292
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) affects approximately 1 in 1000 live births and is the most common cause of infant death after the perinatal period.
To determine the influence of air pollution on the incidence of SIDS.
Time-series analyses were performed to compare the daily mortality rates for SIDS and the daily air pollution concentrations in each of 12 Canadian cities during the period of 1984-1999. Serial autocorrelation was controlled for by city, and then the city-specific estimates were pooled. Increased daily rates of SIDS were associated with increases, on the previous day, in the levels of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and carbon monoxide but not ozone or fine particles measured every sixth day. Effects persisted despite adjustments for season alone or the combination of daily mean temperature, relative humidity, and changes in barometric pressure for NO2 and SO2 but not carbon monoxide.
Increases in both SO2 and NO2, equivalent to their interquartile ranges, were associated with a 17.72% increase in SIDS incidence.
Ambient SO2 and NO2 may be important risk factors for SIDS.
We investigated the relationship between residence in the neighbourhood of an aluminium smelter and the prevalence of atopy in schoolchildren (7-13 years of age). Atopy was assessed in 556 of the 620 participants by a skin prick test with eight common aeroallergens. The median exposures to sulphur dioxide and fluoride during the pollen season in the age interval 19-36 months were 24 and 3.1 micrograms/m3 in the spring and 20 and 3.3 micrograms/m3 in the summer, respectively. The odds ratio (OR) of having atopy was 2.0 (95% CI: 1.2-3.3) in those children who had lived in the index area for 7 years or more compared with those who had lived there less than 7 years (cumulative effect). The OR of atopy was 2.5 (1.4-4.4) in those who had lived in the index area during the age interval of 19-36 months compared with rural residence during this age-interval (age-specific effect). When the age-specific effect and the cumulative effect were compared in the same logistic model, the former decreased to 1.1 (0.4-3.0), whereas the latter was 2.2 (0.7-6.6). The results indicate that exposure to these low levels of irritants during early childhood increases allergen sensitization in children.