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Absenteeism and respiratory disease among children and adults in Helsinki in relation to low-level air pollution and temperature.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature228944
Source
Environ Res. 1990 Jun;52(1):34-46
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1990
Author
A. Pönkä
Author Affiliation
Helsinki City Health Department, Finland.
Source
Environ Res. 1990 Jun;52(1):34-46
Date
Jun-1990
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absenteeism
Adult
Air Pollutants - adverse effects - analysis
Child
Child, Preschool
Cold Temperature
Epidemiologic Methods
Finland
Humans
Infant
Nitrogen Dioxide - adverse effects - analysis
Respiratory Tract Diseases - epidemiology - etiology
Sulfur Dioxide - adverse effects - analysis
Urban health
Abstract
The weekly changes in ambient sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and temperature were compared with the figures for respiratory infection in children and adults and for absenteeism from day-care centers (DCC), schools, and workplaces during a 1-year period in Helsinki. The annual average level of sulfur dioxide was 21 micrograms/m3 and of nitrogen dioxide 47 micrograms/m3; the average temperature was +3.1 degrees C. The levels of these pollutants and the temperature were significantly correlated with the number of upper respiratory infections reported from health centers. Low temperature also correlated with increased frequency of acute tonsillitis, of lower respiratory tract infection among DCC children, and of absenteeism from day-care centers, schools and workplaces. Furthermore, a significant association was found between levels of sulfur dioxide and absenteeism. After statistical standardization for temperature, no other correlations were observed apart from that between high levels of sulfur dioxide and numbers of upper respiratory tract infections diagnosed at health centers (P = 0.04). When the concentrations of sulfur dioxide were above the mean, the frequency of the upper respiratory tract infections was 15% higher than that during the periods of low concentration. The relative importance of the effects of low-level air pollution and low temperature on health is difficult to assess.
PubMed ID
2351127 View in PubMed
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Active and uncontrolled asthma among children exposed to air stack emissions of sulphur dioxide from petroleum refineries in Montreal, Quebec: a cross-sectional study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature124918
Source
Can Respir J. 2012 Mar-Apr;19(2):97-102
Publication Type
Article
Author
Leylâ Deger
Céline Plante
Louis Jacques
Sophie Goudreau
Stéphane Perron
John Hicks
Tom Kosatsky
Audrey Smargiassi
Author Affiliation
Direction de santé publique de l' Agence de las sante services sociaux de Montréal, Université de Montréal, Québec.
Source
Can Respir J. 2012 Mar-Apr;19(2):97-102
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - adverse effects
Anti-Asthmatic Agents - therapeutic use
Asthma - chemically induced - drug therapy - epidemiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Industrial Waste - adverse effects
Infant
Male
Petroleum Pollution - adverse effects
Prevalence
Quebec - epidemiology
Questionnaires
Regression Analysis
Sulfur Dioxide - adverse effects
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
Little attention has been devoted to the effects on children's respiratory health of exposure to sulphur dioxide (SO2) in ambient air from local industrial emissions. Most studies on the effects of SO(2) have assessed its impact as part of the regional ambient air pollutant mix.
To examine the association between exposure to stack emissions of SO(2) from petroleum refineries located in Montreal's (Quebec) east-end industrial complex and the prevalence of active asthma and poor asthma control among children living nearby.
The present cross-sectional study used data from a respiratory health survey of Montreal children six months to 12 years of age conducted in 2006. Of 7964 eligible households that completed the survey, 842 children between six months and 12 years of age lived in an area impacted by refinery emissions. Ambient SO(2) exposure levels were estimated using dispersion modelling. Log-binomial regression models were used to estimate crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% CIs for the association between yearly school and residential SO(2) exposure estimates and asthma outcomes. Adjustments were made for child's age, sex, parental history of atopy and tobacco smoke exposure at home.
The adjusted PR for the association between active asthma and SO(2) levels was 1.14 (95% CI 0.94 to 1.39) per interquartile range increase in modelled annual SO(2). The effect on poor asthma control was greater (PR=1.39 per interquartile range increase in modelled SO(2) [95% CI 1.00 to 1.94]).
Results of the present study suggest a relationship between exposure to refinery stack emissions of SO(2) and the prevalence of active and poor asthma control in children who live and attend school in proximity to refineries.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22536578 View in PubMed
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Airflow limitation and changes in pulmonary function among bleachery workers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature174038
Source
Eur Respir J. 2005 Jul;26(1):133-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2005
Author
A J Mehta
P K Henneberger
K. Torén
A-C Olin
Author Affiliation
Division of Respiratory Disease Studies, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 1095 Willowdale Road, Morgantown, WV 26505, USA.
Source
Eur Respir J. 2005 Jul;26(1):133-9
Date
Jul-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Air Pollutants, Occupational - adverse effects
Airway Resistance
Case-Control Studies
Chlorine Compounds - adverse effects
Cohort Studies
Confidence Intervals
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Industry
Lung Diseases - chemically induced - epidemiology
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Diseases - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Oxides - adverse effects
Ozone - adverse effects
Paper
Probability
Reference Values
Regression Analysis
Respiratory Function Tests
Risk assessment
Spirometry - methods
Sulfur Dioxide - adverse effects
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
This study investigated whether chronic airflow limitation and rapid decline in pulmonary function were associated with peak exposures to ozone and other irritant gases in pulp mills. Bleachery workers potentially exposed to irritant gassings (n = 178) from three Swedish pulp mills, and a comparison group of workers not exposed to irritant gassings (n = 54) from two paper mills, were studied. Baseline surveys occurred in 1995-1996, with follow-up surveys in 1998-1999. Participants performed spirometry and answered questions regarding ozone, chlorine dioxide (ClO2), and sulphur dioxide (SO2) gassings. From regression models controlling for potential confounders, declines in both the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) (-24 mL x yr(-1)) and the forced vital capacity (FVC) (-19 mL x yr(-1)) were associated with ClO2/SO2 gassings. At follow-up, the prevalence of chronic airflow limitation (i.e. FEV1/FVC less than the lower limit of normal) was elevated for participants with only pre-baseline ozone gassings and with both pre-baseline and interval ozone gassings, after controlling for potential confounders. These findings suggest that obstructive effects among bleachery workers are associated with ozone gassings, and that adverse effects on spirometry might also accompany chlorine dioxide/sulphur dioxide gassings. Peak exposures to irritant gases in pulp mills should be prevented.
PubMed ID
15994400 View in PubMed
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Air pollution and cardiac arrhythmias in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature179578
Source
Inhal Toxicol. 2004 Jun;16(6-7):353-62
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2004
Author
Sverre Vedal
Kira Rich
Michael Brauer
Rick White
John Petkau
Author Affiliation
National Jewish Medical and Research Center, Denver, Colorado 80246, USA. vedals@njc.org
Source
Inhal Toxicol. 2004 Jun;16(6-7):353-62
Date
Jun-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Air Pollutants - adverse effects
Air Pollution - adverse effects
Arrhythmias, Cardiac - epidemiology - etiology - therapy
British Columbia - epidemiology
Child
Defibrillators, Implantable
Electric Countershock - instrumentation
Female
Humans
Inhalation Exposure - adverse effects
Logistic Models
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Meteorological Concepts
Middle Aged
Retrospective Studies
Sulfur Dioxide - adverse effects
Abstract
Epidemiological studies have demonstrated associations between short-term increases in outdoor air pollution concentrations and adverse cardiovascular effects, including cardiac mortality and hospitalizations. One possible mechanism behind this association is that air pollution exposure increases the risk of developing a cardiac arrhythmia. To investigate this hypothesis, dates of implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) discharges were abstracted from patient records in patients attending the two ICD clinics in Vancouver, BC, for the years 1997-2000. Daily outdoor air pollutant concentrations and daily meteorological data from the Vancouver region were obtained for the same 4-yr period. Generalized estimating equations were used to assess the association between short-term increases in air pollutant concentrations and ICD discharges while controlling for temporal trends, meteorology, and serial correlation in the data. Air pollution concentrations in the Vancouver region were relatively low from 1997 to 2000, as expected. In the 50 patients who resided within the Vancouver region and who experienced at least 1 ICD discharge during the period of follow-up, no significant associations between increased air pollution concentrations and increased ICD discharges were present. When the patient sample was restricted to the 16 patients who had at least 6 months of follow-up and experienced a rate of at least 2 days with ICD discharges per year, there was a statistically significant association between increased sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) concentration and ICD discharge 2 days after the SO(2) increase. When stratified by season, no associations between increased air pollutant concentrations and increased risk of ICD discharge were observed in the summer, although for several pollutants, concentration increases were associated with a decrease in ICD discharges. In the winter, increased SO(2) concentrations again were seen to be associated with increased risk of ICD discharge, at both 2 and 3 days following increases in SO(2) concentrations. These findings provide no compelling evidence that short-term increases in relatively low concentrations of outdoor air pollutants have an adverse effect on individuals at risk of cardiac arrhythmias. The findings regarding SO(2) are difficult to interpret. They may be chance findings. Alternatively, given the very low concentrations of SO(2) that were present in Vancouver, SO(2) may have been serving as a surrogate measure of other environmental or meteorological factors.
PubMed ID
15204751 View in PubMed
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[Air pollution and cardiovascular disease in Trondheim].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature179678
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2004 May 20;124(10):1381-3
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-20-2004
Author
Bård Mannsåker
Torkel Vikan
Jonas Holme
Author Affiliation
Det medisinske fakultet, Norges teknisk-naturvitenskapelige universitet, 7489 Trondheim. mannsake@stud.ntnu.no
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2004 May 20;124(10):1381-3
Date
May-20-2004
Language
Norwegian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Air Pollutants - adverse effects
Cardiovascular Diseases - chemically induced - epidemiology
Humans
Nitric Oxide - adverse effects
Nitrous Oxide - adverse effects
Norway - epidemiology
Ozone - adverse effects
Particle Size
Patient Admission - statistics & numerical data
Risk factors
Sulfur Dioxide - adverse effects
Toluene - adverse effects
Vehicle Emissions - adverse effects
Xylenes - adverse effects
Abstract
There is some evidence linking air pollution to cardiovascular morbidity. Our aim was to examine whether there is a correlation between air pollution and cardiovascular morbidity in the city of Trondheim, Norway.
We compared the mean daily number of admissions for cardiovascular disease to the St. Olav University hospital on days with relatively low and high levels of PM10 (1993-2001), PM2,5, NO, NO2, SO2, O3, toluene and paraxylene (1998-2001). A time series analysis was carried out to see how day-to-day variations in concentrations of air pollutants correlated with the number of hospitalizations for cardiovascular disease.
In the bivariate analysis, the mean daily number of hospitalizations was found to be significantly higher (p
PubMed ID
15195175 View in PubMed
Less detail
Source
Postgrad Med. 1977 Jul;62(1):124-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1977
Author
E M Cordasco
H S VanOrdstrand
Source
Postgrad Med. 1977 Jul;62(1):124-7
Date
Jul-1977
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - adverse effects
Air Pollutants, Environmental - adverse effects
Cadmium - adverse effects
Carbon Monoxide - adverse effects
Chlorine - adverse effects
Chronic Disease
Humans
Lung - pathology
Lung Diseases, Obstructive - chemically induced
Nitrogen Dioxide - adverse effects
Ozone - adverse effects
Sulfur Dioxide - adverse effects
Abstract
Air pollution referable to increased ambient levels of sulfur dioxide and suspended particulates is associated with increased episodes of acute bronchitis and is also causally related to some cases of chronic bronchitis. Oxidant air pollution is associated with abnormalities of pulmonary function in children and is a major contributory factor in COP, especially bronchitis, in some areas of the United States. The relationship of nitrogen dioxide atmospheric contamination to COPD is still controversial. In our opinion, the epidemiologic studies conducted to date have been inadequate and further elucidation is indicated. Cadmium fumes and compounds have been found to be instrumental in the development of some cases of chronic bronchitis and emphysema in Sweden. This association is unproved in the United States and warrants a thorough clinical and epidemiologic evaluation.
PubMed ID
876896 View in PubMed
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Air pollution and daily hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases in Windsor, Ontario.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature176397
Source
Can J Public Health. 2005 Jan-Feb;96(1):29-33
Publication Type
Article
Author
Karen Y Fung
Isaac Luginaah
Kevin M Gorey
Greg Webster
Author Affiliation
1 Department of Mathematics & Statistics, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON N9B 3P4. kfung@uwindsor.ca
Source
Can J Public Health. 2005 Jan-Feb;96(1):29-33
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Air Pollution - adverse effects - analysis
Cardiovascular Diseases - epidemiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Middle Aged
Ontario - epidemiology
Precipitating Factors
Risk
Sulfur Dioxide - adverse effects
Weather
Abstract
To examine the role that ambient air pollution plays in exacerbating cardiovascular disease hospitalization in Windsor, Ontario.
The number of daily cardiac hospital admissions was obtained from all Windsor hospitals from April 1, 1995 to December 31, 2000 and linked to concentrations of ambient air pollutants and weather variables. The logarithm of daily counts of hospitalization was regressed on the levels of pollutants, after adjusting for seasonal, weekly cycles, and weather variables using time series analysis with natural splines as smoothing functions.
Of all the pollutants considered, sulphur dioxide (SO2) had the strongest effect on cardiac hospitalization among the > or = 65 age group. The percentage increase in daily admission was 2.6% for current day sulphur dioxide level (95% CI: 0.5-6.4), 4.0% for 2-day mean level (95% CI: 0.1-6.9), and 5.6% (95% CI: 1.5-9.9) for 3-day mean level for an increase in interquartile range of 19.3 ppb. When particulate PM10 was included in the model, the contributing effect of sulphur dioxide remained significant for the > or = 65 age group for all three levels.
Short-term effects of sulphur dioxide are associated significantly to daily cardiac hospital admissions for people > or = 65 years of age living in Windsor. Since Windsor is a border city, additional monitoring and assessment is recommended to determine if air quality and resultant health effects have deteriorated since traffic congestion at the border has increased following the events of September 11, 2001.
Notes
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PubMed ID
15682690 View in PubMed
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Air pollution and sudden infant death syndrome.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature179889
Source
Pediatrics. 2004 Jun;113(6):e628-31
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2004
Author
Robert Dales
Richard T Burnett
Marc Smith-Doiron
David M Stieb
Jeffrey R Brook
Author Affiliation
Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Pediatrics. 2004 Jun;113(6):e628-31
Date
Jun-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - adverse effects - analysis
Air Pollution - adverse effects
Canada - epidemiology
Carbon Monoxide - adverse effects - analysis
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Nitrogen Dioxide - adverse effects - analysis
Ozone - adverse effects - analysis
Socioeconomic Factors
Sudden Infant Death - epidemiology - etiology
Sulfur Dioxide - adverse effects - analysis
Abstract
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) affects approximately 1 in 1000 live births and is the most common cause of infant death after the perinatal period.
To determine the influence of air pollution on the incidence of SIDS.
Time-series analyses were performed to compare the daily mortality rates for SIDS and the daily air pollution concentrations in each of 12 Canadian cities during the period of 1984-1999. Serial autocorrelation was controlled for by city, and then the city-specific estimates were pooled. Increased daily rates of SIDS were associated with increases, on the previous day, in the levels of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and carbon monoxide but not ozone or fine particles measured every sixth day. Effects persisted despite adjustments for season alone or the combination of daily mean temperature, relative humidity, and changes in barometric pressure for NO2 and SO2 but not carbon monoxide.
Increases in both SO2 and NO2, equivalent to their interquartile ranges, were associated with a 17.72% increase in SIDS incidence.
Ambient SO2 and NO2 may be important risk factors for SIDS.
PubMed ID
15173546 View in PubMed
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Allergen sensitization and exposure to irritants in infancy.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature34628
Source
Allergy. 1996 Oct;51(10):719-23
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1996
Author
V. Søyseth
J. Kongerud
J. Boe
Author Affiliation
Hydro Aluminium Ardal, Ovre Ardal, Norway.
Source
Allergy. 1996 Oct;51(10):719-23
Date
Oct-1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Air Pollutants, Environmental - adverse effects
Aluminum
Child
Child, Preschool
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Fluorides - adverse effects
Humans
Infant
Logistic Models
Male
Metallurgy
Norway
Odds Ratio
Pollen
Prevalence
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Residence Characteristics
Respiratory Hypersensitivity - etiology
Skin Tests
Sulfur Dioxide - adverse effects
Time Factors
Abstract
We investigated the relationship between residence in the neighbourhood of an aluminium smelter and the prevalence of atopy in schoolchildren (7-13 years of age). Atopy was assessed in 556 of the 620 participants by a skin prick test with eight common aeroallergens. The median exposures to sulphur dioxide and fluoride during the pollen season in the age interval 19-36 months were 24 and 3.1 micrograms/m3 in the spring and 20 and 3.3 micrograms/m3 in the summer, respectively. The odds ratio (OR) of having atopy was 2.0 (95% CI: 1.2-3.3) in those children who had lived in the index area for 7 years or more compared with those who had lived there less than 7 years (cumulative effect). The OR of atopy was 2.5 (1.4-4.4) in those who had lived in the index area during the age interval of 19-36 months compared with rural residence during this age-interval (age-specific effect). When the age-specific effect and the cumulative effect were compared in the same logistic model, the former decreased to 1.1 (0.4-3.0), whereas the latter was 2.2 (0.7-6.6). The results indicate that exposure to these low levels of irritants during early childhood increases allergen sensitization in children.
PubMed ID
8905000 View in PubMed
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44 records – page 1 of 5.