p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is an important allergen; 5.0% of patients tested positive to PPD when patch-tested, according to the North American Contact Dermatitis Group. Hair dyes are the main source of exposure.
To assess the significance of PPD allergy at the Ottawa Patch Test Clinic.
We assessed the epidemiology of PPD allergies and determined the cross-reactivity with other para-amino compounds. Charts of patients visiting the Ottawa Patch Test Clinic between May 1997 and July 2009 were reviewed.
One hundred thirty-four patients were found to have a contact allergy to PPD; 75.4% were female, 24.6% were male, 13.4% were hairdressers, 18.7% had a history of atopy, 90.3% were sensitized by hair dye, 2.2% were sensitized by henna tattoos, and 7.5% were sensitized by other sources. Positive patch-test reactions to textile dyes were seen in 24.6%, 7.5% reacted to benzocaine, 6.0% reacted to sulfa drugs, 1.5% reacted to isopropyl-para-phenylenediamine, and 1.5% reacted to para-aminobenzoic acid.
PPD is an important source of allergic contact allergy. Our results show a significant relationship of PPD with other related para-amino compounds.
BACKGROUND: Celecoxib and rofecoxib have been used in Norway since 2000. These cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors (COX-2 inhibitors) have no better clinical efficacy than older non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis, but may possibly lead to a lower incidence of upper gastrointestinal ulcers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Published and unpublished clinical data on side effects were examined and interpreted. The aim was to evaluate the general safety of these new drugs compared with older NSAIDs. RESULTS: The incidence of side effects is addressed in two large published studies comparing COX-2 inhibitors with other NSAIDs. Only rofecoxib showed an unequivocal lower incidence of complicated upper gastrointestinal ulcers. However, the incidence of serious side effects was significantly higher in the rofecoxib group. In the other study there was a trend towards more serious side effects in the celecoxib group. INTERPRETATION: The available clinical data do not suggest that COX-2 inhibitors are safer drugs than other NSAIDs.
BACKGROUND. It is difficult to obtain reliable date on the rate of adverse reactions caused by drugs in general use. Yet it would be important to compile data on adverse reactions to long-term antimicrobial therapy. METHODS. A sample of 1607 girls and 218 boys from 16 409 children younger than 16 years who had received long term antimicrobial therapy for recurrent urinary tract infections during 1976 to 1985 was analyzed with regard to adverse reactions. RESULTS. Altogether 5066 courses of treatment were given to female patients and 607 to male patients. Adverse reactions were reported in 589 courses of the 5673 (10.4%), and 463 courses (8.2%) were discontinued because of adverse reactions. None of the patients had serious life-threatening reactions, and none of those receiving nitrofurantoin had pulmonary problems. The most common adverse reactions associated with the use of nitrofurantoin were nausea and vomiting (rate, 4.4/100 person years at risk; 95% confidence interval, 3.4 to 5.4), whereas sulfonamides caused most commonly allergic skin reactions (rate, 4.6; 95% confidence interval, 3.2 to 6.5). Patients younger than the age of 2 years receiving nitrofurantoin had adverse reactions more often than those who received sulfonamides, but in the age group 2 to 15 years sulfonamides caused adverse reactions leading to discontinuation of treatment more often than did nitrofurantoin of treatment the adverse reactions occurred during the first 6 months of treatment. CONCLUSIONS. We found nitrofurantoin and sulfonamides to be safe drugs for use in long term preventive antimicrobial therapy.
To evaluate the association between rofecoxib, celecoxib, diclofenac, and ibuprofen and the risk of hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in an elderly population.
We conducted a retrospective cohort study, using data from the government of Quebec health insurance agency databases, among patients 65-80 years of age who filled a prescription for any of the study drugs during 1999-2002. Cox regression models with time-dependent exposure were used to compare the incidence rates of hospitalization for AMI adjusting for patients' baseline characteristics. Analyses stratified by dose and number of supplied days were also conducted.
At the index date, a total of 91 062 patients were taking rofecoxib, 127 928 celecoxib, 49 193 diclofenac, and 15 601 ibuprofen. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) (95%CI) of hospitalization for AMI were: celecoxib versus rofecoxib: 0.90 (0.79, 1.01); ibuprofen versus rofecoxib: 0.95 (0.65, 1.37); diclofenac versus rofecoxib: 1.01 (0.84, 1.22). In secondary analyses based on intended duration of use, neither COX-2 selective inhibitor was associated with a higher risk than ibuprofen or diclofenac. The unadjusted risk of AMI for all NSAIDs increased with dose. In the direct two way adjusted comparison of each NSAID stratified by dose, the only statistically significant difference was with rofecoxib >25 mg/day versus celecoxib >200 mg/day.
In this study there was no difference between AMI occurrence in elderly patients taking rofecoxib or celecoxib at recommended doses for chronic indications versus those taking ibuprofen/diclofenac. However, the risk of AMI was higher among patients using higher doses of rofecoxib (>25 mg/day) compared to patients using higher doses of celecoxib (>200 mg/day).
In a large randomized trial of statin therapy in patients of South-Asian origin with hypercholesterolemia, 740 patients in the United States and Canada received 6 weeks of treatment with rosuvastatin 10 or 20 mg or atorvastatin 10 or 20 mg. A total of 485 patients (66%) were categorized as being at high risk of coronary heart disease and had a National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III treatment goal of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol 10 times the upper limit of normal, alanine aminotransferase >3 times the upper limit of normal on 2 consecutive occasions, or proteinuria or hematuria over the relatively short duration of treatment. In conclusion, statin therapy was well tolerated and effective in decreasing LDL cholesterol in patients of South-Asian origin, with the 10- and 20-mg doses of rosuvastatin and atorvastatin allowing most patients to reach recommended LDL cholesterol goals.
Clinical practice guidelines for appropriate nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) utilisation focus on preventing NSAID-related gastrointestinal (GI), cardiovascular (CV), congestive heart failure (CHF) and renal adverse events. We compared concordance of NSAID prescriptions with clinical practice guideline recommendations in Quebec, pre and post rofecoxib withdrawal from market.
Data were obtained from the Quebec Health Insurance Agency (RAMQ). All prescriptions for celecoxib and traditional NSAIDs (tNSAIDs) dispensed to patients =50?years of age were evaluated for concordance with clinical practice guidelines. Prescriptions were stratified by time period (pre and post rofecoxib withdrawal) and, GI, CV, CHF and renal risk factors at the dispensing date. Gastro-protective agent (GPA) co-prescriptions were also evaluated.
We assessed 1,966,793 celecoxib and 1,743,481 tNSAIDs prescriptions. Of celecoxib prescriptions, 87.2% and 86.5% were appropriate in the post- and pre-periods, respectively, compared to 72.6% and 70.1% of tNSAIDs prescriptions, respectively. In logistic regression, 'appropriateness' of celecoxib prescriptions increased with age, rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis (OA), and was higher in the post- versus pre-period (odds ratio 1.22, 95% confidence interval 1.18-1.26); it was lower in women and in patients with higher income. 'Appropriateness' of tNSAID prescriptions decreased in the post-period (0.92, 0.89-0.95), was lower in older persons and those with OA, and higher in women and in higher income patients. Of tNSAID prescriptions that should have received a GPA co-prescription, only 45.6% did.
Concordance with guideline recommendations increased for celecoxib and decreased for tNSAIDs after rofecoxib withdrawal; GPA co-prescription with tNSAIDs remained suboptimal.