Studies from several countries suggest that erecting fences on bridges more commonly used for suicide by jumping may be an effective way of reducing the risk of suicide by jumping from these bridges. Distribution of suicides by jumping off bridges has not yet been studied on a national level in any country. This study included all suicides by jumping from high places registered in the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry (COD) in the period 1999-2010 (n = 319). Combining data from the COD registry and information from police records, 71 cases of suicide by jumping off a bridge were identified involving 36 bridges. This form of suicide constituted approximately 1% of all suicides in Norway in the period 1999-2010. Almost half of these suicides were registered at only 6 bridges. Three Norwegian bridges were secured during the observation period of this study. Two bridges had barriers installed on the full length of the bridge with 11 suicides registered before barriers were installed, and none after. On the 1 bridge that was only partially secured, no change in numbers of suicides was observed after barriers were installed. One-third of jumps from bridges occurred over land. We found that although suicide by jumping off bridges was a relatively rare event, there is a potential for saving lives by installing physical barriers on bridges that are more commonly used for suicide by jumping.
The authors describe an external crisis intervention service in a general hospital. This service is intended for a clientele presenting acute mental health problems, referred, in the majority of cases, from the emergency department. They present demographic data, diagnostic data, data on the factors precipitating the crises and data which can be used to qualify and quantify the clientele. In addition, they describe the therapeutic approach and the treatment philosophy, the number of follow-up sessions, and the guidance provided to the clientele after follow-up. Finally, the authors suggest prerequisites considered essential to the effective operation of a crisis intervention module in an external psychiatric clinic.
BACKGROUND: Monitoring of acute poisoning is important for health authorities. There have been local studies and national studies in limited areas such as drug poisoning, but morbidity and mortality associated with acute poisoning has not been presented collectively at a national level. The aim of the study is to establish morbidity and mortality associated with acute poisoning in Norway. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study material comprised data from the Norwegian Patient Register and the Norwegian Causes of Death Register on patients with acute poisoning from 1999 through 2004. Data from somatic hospitals include patients who were discharged after 5 hours. RESULTS: Almost 11,000 discharges with acute poisoning, coded as main or other condition (ICD-10 F and T codes), were recorded from somatic hospitals annually. The hospital mortality was 0.8 %. About 500 acute poisoning deaths occurred annually, 20 % within and 80 % of them outside hospitals. INTERPRETATION: The results show increased morbidity and stable mortality by acute poisoning in Norway, 1999-2004. Information in the Cause-of-Death and especially the Patient Register should be improved. More detailed information by type of drugs and substances and external causes are needed for monitoring and prevention.
Psychopathology is the main risk factor for adolescent suicide but several studies have shown that only a small proportion of suicide victims receive mental health care during the months preceding their suicide. The goal of this study is to describe the utilization of medical services by Quebec adolescent suicide victims during the year preceding their suicide.
All suicides of persons aged 19 or less that occurred during a five-year period were retrieved from the Quebec Coroner's database. Corresponding medical services utilization data were retrieved from the Quebec physician payment database (RAMQ) and the Quebec hospitalization database (MED-ECHO). Data were analyzed in terms of types and intensity of medical services (physical or psychiatric), types of providers (general practitioners, psychiatrists, and other medical specialists), and timing of interventions relative to the date of suicide.
78% of all Quebec adolescent suicide victims utilized medical services during the year before their suicide. However, only 12% of all victims received medical attention for psychiatric problems, and only 9.9% met with a psychiatrist during that same period of time. General practitioners and non-psychiatric medical specialists provided medical attention for psychiatric problems to only 5.6% and 0.7% of those future suicide victims with whom they met in outpatient settings, and the intensity of their interventions was low.
These results suggest that the level of recognition and treatment of psychopathology in Quebec adolescents who later commit suicide is low, despite the fact that a large proportion of them meet with physicians during the year preceding their suicide. This suggests that information and training programs pertaining to adolescent suicide and psychopathology should be implemented for GPs and non-psychiatric medical specialists as well.
This is a community-based sequential case series of 50 individuals who committed suicide by jumping from bridges in two regions of Sweden. Of the 50 subjects, 32 were men and 18 women, with a median age of 35 years. At least 40 had psychiatric problems. The frequency of suicide was highest during the summer months and during the weekends. A total of 27 bridges were used, with a total length of just under 9 km. Three bridges accounted for almost half of all suicides. Limiting the availability of one method of committing suicide is reported to reduce the overall suicide rate; why suicide and injury suicide preventive measures might be considered. Since this study demonstrates that few bridges attract suicide candidates, this injury mechanism needs to be acknowledged by the road system owners and included in the safety work.
Mortality among schizophrenia patients is substantially higher than in the general population. The aim of this study was to investigate, in a nationwide cohort of suicidal schizophrenic individuals, how the risks of suicide, severe suicide attempts and death are associated with usage of antidepressant or antipsychotic treatment.
The study population included all individuals in Finland who were hospitalised with a diagnosis of attempted suicide between 1 January 1997 and 31 December 2003, who also had at least one hospitalisation due to schizophrenia diagnosis (ICD-10 F20), and were at least 16 years old when the index hospitalisation began. Cox's proportional hazards modelling and Bayesian intensity estimation were used in the analysis.
There were 1611 patients with a mean follow-up time of 4.3 years. Current use of antipsychotics was associated with decreased mortality due to suicide (HR 0.52, 95% CI 0.34-0.81, p = 0.004), but no significant decrease in mortality was observed during current use of antidepressants (0.66, 0.41-1.08, p = 0.099), when compared to past use. In more detailed analysis when current users were compared to non-users, olanzapine, and mixed use of antipsychotics, were associated with reduced all-cause mortality, and mixed use also with reduced risk of suicide mortality. Current use of citalopram was associated with decreased all-cause and suicide mortality.
In a population of suicidal schizophrenic individuals antipsychotic medication, treatment was associated with lower mortality from suicide and all-causes. Antidepressive medication was associated with lower all-cause mortality when used in combination with antipsychotics.
Erratum In: Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2011 Oct;20(10):1113