Data were collected prospectively from psychiatric evaluations performed on 53 consecutive Eskimos in the Bering Strait region who attempted suicide. Depressive diagnoses were common (N = 49). Thirty-seven (70%) of the attempts were preceded by a recent interpersonal loss. Sixty percent of the patients had lost a parent during childhood. Poor affective relatedness, especially around issues of loss, was noted in most of the patients. Thus, both multiple losses and limited grieving mechanisms may be important risk factors for attempted suicide in this population.
A multivariate model was developed incorporating various socio-demographic, social-environmental, and social-psychological factors in an attempt to predict suicidal ideation among Canadian youth. The main research objective sought to determine what socially based factors elevate or reduce suicidal ideation within this population. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Children and Youth-Cycle 5 (2003), a cross-sectional sample of 1,032 was used to empirically identify various social determinants of suicidal ideation among youth between the ages of 12 and 15. Results reveal statistically significant correlations between suicide ideation and some lesser examined socially based measures. In particular, ability to communicate feelings, negative attachment to parents/guardians, taunting/bullying or abuse, and presence of deviant peers were significant predictors of suicidal ideation. As expected, depression/anxiety, gender, and age were also correlated with thoughts of suicide. Research findings should help foster a better understanding toward the social elements of suicide and provide insight into how suicide prevention strategies may be improved through an increased emphasis on substance use education, direct targeting of dysfunctional families and deviant peer groups, and exploring more avenues of self-expression for youth.
Suicidal behaviour is a rapidly increasing health problem among young men, and represents a major challenge to the Armed Forces. A retrospective investigation of suicide attempts among male conscripts showed that even though the overall incidence is lower than in civilian settings it is high among the basic trainees. The suicide-attempting soldier often has a troublesome background, with psychiatric disorders and drug or alcohol abuse. Many have personality disorders, and a subgroup displays repeated self-destructive behaviour. Most soldiers employ less life-threatening self-destructive methods and attempt the suicide on military premises. Many are influenced by alcohol. Following the suicide attempt most soldiers are quickly discharged from service. The paper discusses various aspects of self-destructive behaviour among soldiers and possible preventive measures.
The current study examines the contextual effects of community structural characteristics, as well as the mediating role of key social mechanisms, on youth suicidal behavior in Iceland. We argue that the contextual influence of community structural instability on youth suicidal behavior should be mediated by weak attachment to social norms and values (anomie), and contact with suicidal others (suggestion-imitation). The data comes from a national survey of 14-16 years old adolescents. Valid questionnaires were obtained from 7018 students (response rate about 87%). The findings show that the community level of residential mobility has a positive, contextual effect on adolescent suicidal behavior. The findings also indicate that the contextual effect of residential mobility is mediated by both anomie and suggestion-imitation. The findings offer the possibility to identify communities that carry a substantial risk for adolescent suicide as well as the mechanisms that mediate the influence of community structural characteristics on adolescent risk behavior.
This paper investigates, first, the differences in attempted-suicide rates among men and women between urban districts and, second, the association between regional characteristics and attempted-suicide rates. The data cover all attempted suicides referred to healthcare in 1989 and 1997 in Helsinki, Finland. There are clear and persistent differences in the attempted-suicide rates between the studied districts. Although female rates increased in all seven districts from 1989 to 1997, their mutual relationships remain similar. There are more changes among men both within and between the districts. Socio-economic disadvantage within the districts was associated with higher attempted-suicide rates. We conclude that socio-economic characteristics and their changes over time in the districts are likely to affect the suicidal behaviour of men more than women. Improving the employment status and structural position, especially of men, would probably prove to be important for the prevention of attempted suicide.
A study carried out among 2,850 Québec adolescents, aged 12 to 18 and coming from four high schools in the Trois-Rivières area, shows that 15.4% of them admit to having seriously thought of committing suicide. These teenagers are at different stages of the suicidal process. Hence, 4% admit to nurturing serious thoughts about suicide: 7.9% say they are at the planning stages and 3.5% have actually attempted suicide. The characteristics of the families involved are fairly the same for all categories of suicidal tendencies. However, the fathers of the youth who have made attempts have less schooling than the father of the other teens with suicidal tendencies. Furthermore, the adolescents who have attempted suicide report a greater number of events that are key to their suicidal thoughts. The persistence of suicidal thoughts, the depressive state, the feelings of an existential void and the despair all grow in function of the seriousness of suicidal tendencies. These affective-type variables best distinguish the different categories of suicidal tendencies.
The purpose of the study is by the instrumentality of an anonymous and voluntary interview study to expose the extent of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among 15-24-year-olds in the Danish educational system. 3042 persons participated in the study. About 40% of those interviewed had at least once had suicidal ideation and almost one in every twenty confirmed that they had attempted to commit suicide. Furthermore, the study showed that almost one in every ten had experienced suicide in the family. The study showed that frequent or chronical suicidal ideation and self-destructive behaviour can be considered risk factors of suicide attempts and possible predictors of future suicidal behaviour. It also appeared that the students who had experienced suicide in the family had a risk of committing suicide that was three times as high as that of the students who had not experienced suicide in the family. The results of the study also suggest that it is probably only the tip of the iceberg which is detected or registered by the treatment system. To all appearance, close on 75-90% of young suicide attempts are not registered officially. This bears witness of the fact that many of these 15-24-year-olds apparently received no help after their suicide attempt.
Adult height, a marker of early-life environment, has been sporadically associated with suicide risk. We have examined adult height and attempted suicide risk in a cohort of 1,102,293 Swedish men and, in fully-adjusted analyses, found decreasing stepwise associations between height and attempted suicides by any means and most specific means.
To examine the association between pathological gambling (PG) and attempted suicide in a nationally representative sample of Canadians.
Data came from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 1.2, conducted in 2002, in which 36 984 subjects, aged 15 years or older, were interviewed. Logistic regression was performed with attempted suicide (in the past year) as the dependent variable. The independent variables were PG, major depression, alcohol dependence, drug dependence, and mental health care (in the past year), as well as a range of sociodemographic variables. Survey weights and bootstrap methods were used to account for the complex survey design.
In the final logistic regression model, which included terms for PG, major depression, alcohol dependence, and mental health care, as well as age, sex, education, and income, the odds ratio for PG and attempted suicide was 3.43 (95% confidence interval, 1.37 to 8.60).
PG (in the past year) and attempted suicide (in the past year) are associated in a nationally representative sample of Canadians. However, it is not possible to say from these data whether this represents a causal relation.