Under conditions of experimental myocardium infarction caused in dogs by ligation of the anterior descending branch of the left coronary artery, the activity of alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and succinate dehydrogenase in mitochondria of the cortex, cerebellum and medulla ablongata lowers most intensively on the first and fifth day after the appearance of acute myocardium infarction. Activation of the most important enzymes of the pentose-phosphate cycle (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and transketolase) which is clearly pronounced on the fifth day is observed in the mentioned sections. In the authors' opinions the above changes in the activity of the enzymes are due to the brain hypoxia which may be the main reason of disturbance in the function of the central nervous system under this disease.
Adult-onset calorie restriction (A-CR) is an experimental model of life extension and healthy aging less explored, compared with calorie restriction begun at early ages, but one more realistic for human application. We examined the effect of A-CR on the aging rat kidney with respect to common structural age-dependent changes and the accumulation of mitochondrial enzyme abnormalities in tubular epithelial cells. A 40% calorie restriction was initiated in middle-aged rats, before the onset of significant age-related changes in the Fischer x Brown Norway rat kidney. This dietary intervention effectively reduced glomerulosclerosis and tubular atrophy within 6 mo and changed the rate of interstitial fibrosis formation within 1 yr and vascular wall thickening and the expression cytochrome c oxidase (COX)-deficient tubular epithelial cells in 18 mo compared with age-matched ad libitum-fed rats. Our histological approach (histochemical staining for mitochondrial enzyme activity and laser capture microdissection) coupled with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) PCR analyses demonstrated that COX-deficient renal tubular epithelial cells accumulated mtDNA deletion mutations and that these cells contained unique, clonally expanded mtDNA deletion mutations. Renal tubular epithelial cells with mitochondrial abnormalities presented cellular characteristics indicative of physiological dysfunction.
The increase of ubiquinone content in myocardial mitochondria and succinateubiquinone reductase activity in rat blood leucocytes under hypoxic hypoxia and acute microfocal myocardial damage [table: see text] have been shown. At the same time the succinateubiquinone reductase activity of rat myocardial mitochondria do not change substantially. We simultaneously observe the dramatic drop in NADH-ubiquinone reductase activity under experimental myocarditis. This fact demonstrates higher stability of succinateubiquinone reductase system and differences in metabolical processes under hypoxic conditions of different origin. All vitamin E derivatives studied demonstrate substantial antihypoxic activity, which is connected with increased animals' survivability, ubiquinone content in myocardial mitochondria and stabilization and leveling of succinateubiquinone reducatse activity in rat blood leucocytes. alpha-Tocopherolacetate with shortened to six carbon atoms side chain is the most effective in this respect. We discuss possible mechanisms for the realization of vitamin E and its active derivative's antihypoxic effect.
The present study was carried out to elucidate the effect of long-term alcohol intake on the oxidative capacity of brown adipose tissue in the rat. Rats housed at room temperature were given water containing 10% ethanol for six months, while controls received water alone. Fully cold-acclimated rats (exposed to +4 degrees C for 6 weeks) served as the second control group. Alcohol did not alter the food intake of the rats compared with the controls kept at room temperature, but it did cause a mean decrease of 8 ml in fluid consumption. There was no difference in the increase in body weight between the groups housed at room temperature. Body weight of the rats exposed to cold did not change during cold acclimation. No morphological liver changes were observed in alcohol-fed rats, but some changes related to long-term alcohol consumption were found in the myocardium. Chronic alcohol intake increased the quantity of brown adipose tissue and its protein content but changes were not as great as in the cold-acclimated rats nor did alcohol increase protein content per unit of the adipose tissue as did cold. On the other hand, the specific activity of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase increased by 90% and that of succinate dehydrogenase by 130% in alcohol-fed rats, whereas specific activities of these enzymes displayed little or no change in the cold-acclimated rats. Results suggest that chronic alcohol ingestion induces the oxidative capacity of the interscapular brown adipose tissue in the rat, increasing the mass of BAT and specific activities of mitochondrial enzymes.
Correcting action of vitamin E and it's short chain derivative on the activity of some mitochondria electron transport chain enzymes were investigated on models of acute and chronic toxic hepatitis. Inhibition of NADH- and succinate-cytochrome c oxidoreductase complexes activity was established in short term action of xenobiotics. Treatment of rats with CCl4 during 60 days lowered activity of NADH-cytochrome c oxidoreductase complex and significantly increased activity of succinate-cytochrome c oxidoreductase complex and succinate dehydrogenase. Obviously, as a result of long term influence of hepatotoxic agents switching over in rat mitochondria electron transport from NAD-dependent way of substrate oxidation to succinate-dependent way took place. This event could be a part of the body adaptation mechanisms. Vitamin E and its short chain analogue corrected activities of investigated enzymes of mitochondria liver in the animals with acute and chronic hepatitis.
To investigate the hypothesis that acclimatization to altitude would result in a downregulation in muscle Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase pump concentration, tissue samples were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle of six volunteers (5 males and 1 female), ranging in age from 24 to 35 yr, both before and within 3 days after a 21-day expedition to the summit of Mount Denali, Alaska (6,194 m). Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, measured by the [(3)H]ouabain-binding technique, decreased by 13.8% [348 +/- 12 vs. 300 +/- 7.6 (SE) pmol/g wet wt; P
We studied the effect of benzo[a]pyrene on cells of lymphoid organs, energy metabolism of blood lymphocytes, and immunological reactivity in mice with anxious depressive syndrome produced by social stress. Benzo[a]pyrene exhibited a more pronounced immunotoxic activity in anxious-depressive animals, which was more than a simple sum of the effects produced by adverse ecological and psychic factors.
The study of energy metabolism and phenotypical adaptation in patients with ulcer disease has revealed deficiency of energy metabolism and defective phenotypical adaptation in the form of its tension or failure of adaptive processes. Sanatorium treatment with oral intake of mineral water, mineral baths, fangotherapy, limontar-electrophoresis and millimetric waves promoted normalization of energy metabolism and adaptive processes. Impact of different physiotherapeutic factors on energy metabolism and adaptation of the organism is described.
A study of the action of different physical factors on micro-organisms is necessary for a further development of exobiology. The action of temperature on crystalline preparations of catalase and peroxidase was studied by means of oscillographic polarography. A determination of the height of polarographic waves at the decrease of temperature from 20 degrees C to 0 degrees C has shown that structural elements of the peroxidase molecule connected with the enzymatic activity are more stable with the decrease of temperature cf. catalase. A relative resistance of the dehydrogenase activity in Az. vinelandii cells to high vacuum was found. Incubation of azotobacter cells under vacuum of 10(-9) mm Hg during 72 hr did not decrease the activity of alcohol and succinic dehydrogenase. Bac. cereus spores can be preserved from bactericidal UV action by thin films of chrome. The thickness of chrome film being 200-670 angstroms, spores are killed by a dose of 7.8 x 10(7) erg/cm2 at 253.7 microns wave length. Spores covered by chrome film thicker than 800 angstroms remain alive after this treatment. Investigations carried out with an 'Artificial Mars' camera led to the following results. The growth of Bac. megaterium on liquid growth media in this camera ceases as a result of UV rays killing all cells after 3 weeks. Untreated bacteria grow in the camera for a long time. Spore-forming bacteria isolated from the sand of the Kara-Kum Desert grow in ground limonite (with the addition of 2% garden soil) having maximum hygroscopic humidity (3.8%). Freezing and thawing (from -60 degrees C to +25 degrees C) corresponding to day temperature deviations on Mars, low pressure (P=10 mm Hg) and the composition of the atmosphere (CO2-50%, N2-40%, Ar-10%) do not influence the growth of xerophylic bacteria under study. Humidity is the main factor limiting the growth of micro-organisms under 'Artificial Mars' conditions. According to the further development of the microbiological meteorite analysis methods, samples of rocks and stone meteorites were sterilized, incubated in the desert or on a snow surface in the Arctic and after different times (from 100 days to 7 months), investigated. In all cases, microbes were found only on the sample surfaces, whereas 1 cm from the surface and in the central parts micro-organism were completely absent. Hence, microbiological analysis of central parts of meteorites fallen in the Arctic or during dry periods of the year in the desert can give reliable results.