The influence of psychiatric comorbidity on the course and outcome in a nationwide representative sample (n = 351) of treatment-seeking substance users over a 28-month period was studied prospectively. The patients were administered the Diagnostic Interview Schedule and a questionnaire on drinking history. At 16 and 28 months after admission the patients returned a questionnaire on drinking history and mental health. In cases of those lacking information on either follow-up (45%), details on drinking status was obtained from informants. Completely abstinent were 16%. Generalized anxiety disorder and/or social phobia at the index admission predicted abstinence during the follow-up [odds ratio (OR) = 0.25], whereas onset of alcoholism among these patients after age 25 years predicted a worse prognosis (OR = 13.5). Also increasing number of social consequences related to abuse (OR = 1.3) and drinking more than the median (OR = 2.1) predicted a poor outcome. The abstinent group had significantly better mental health at follow-up. The patients with comorbid psychiatric disorders at admission were worse at follow-up. Although substance use disorders and comorbid psychiatric disorders have to a certain degree separate courses, there is nevertheless significant interaction between them. Early treatment and recognition of comorbid psychiatric disorders among substance abusers is necessary.
On the basis of the experience gained in the treatment of patients who are drug addicts a complex treatment-and-rehabilitation programme has been developed and adopted. It is a psychotherapeutically--oriented programme that includes the following steps: selection of patients, promotion of health of the family, staging, participation of social workers--former patients. The end objective is to achieve a lasting remission in addicted patients, promotion of health of their relatives and normalization of family relations. Such an approach to solving the problem differs from nonmedicamentous methods widely employed now in the Ukraine and UIS republics, which have not been associated with demonstrable effects in treatment and, more important, rehabilitation of addicted persons.
This article explores the lived experiences of individuals who have participated in faith-based substance user rehabilitation programs in the Russian Federation. The Russian Federation has high rates of alcohol and opioid dependence and a dearth of professional treatment options. In the post-Soviet period, Evangelical Christian groups have developed substance user rehabilitation programs to attempt to address substance use and its related problems. Data were collected during 2010 via focus group interviews with participants in three Evangelical rehabilitation programs in the Volga region of the Russian Federation. Themes emerging from the qualitative data analysis process were classified into three broad categories: Typical Day, Personal Background/Decision to Enter Rehabilitation, and Helpful Aspects of Rehabilitation Process.
Erratum In: Subst Use Misuse. 2013 Sep;48(12):1218
To evaluate the characteristics of patients with various substance-related disorders, and to examine rates of retention in treatment.
We assessed the demographic characteristics, substance abuse, and psychological distress of 239 men and women at admission. Six-month performance was evaluated, using as criteria length of stay in treatment, abstinence, attendance in therapy sessions, and completion status at discharge.
Moderate to severe psychological distress was observed among these individuals. Higher levels of depression were found among women and in individuals with alcohol and sedative use disorders. The primary drug of abuse, frequency of use, and reason for entering treatment were the most significant predictors of retention.
Opiate-addicted clients had the worst prognosis and treatment profiles. Further research is needed to identify factors that would optimize treatment for opiate dependence.
The Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (LS/CMI) and the Youth version (YLS/CMI) generate an assessment of risk/need across eight domains that are considered to be relevant for girls and boys and for women and men. Aggregated across five data sets, the predictive validity of each of the eight domains was gender-neutral. The composite total score (LS/CMI total risk/need) was strongly associated with the recidivism of males (mean r = .39, mean AUC = .746) and very strongly associated with the recidivism of females (mean r = .53, mean AUC = .827). The enhanced validity of LS total risk/need with females was traced to the exceptional validity of Substance Abuse with females. The intra-data set conclusions survived the introduction of two very large samples composed of female offenders exclusively. Finally, the mean incremental contributions of gender and the gender-by-risk level interactions in the prediction of criminal recidivism were minimal compared to the relatively strong validity of the LS/CMI risk level. Although the variance explained by gender was minimal and although high-risk cases were high-risk cases regardless of gender, the recidivism rates of lower risk females were lower than the recidivism rates of lower risk males, suggesting possible implications for test interpretation and policy.
Although legal, formal, and informal social controls are frequently used to pressure individuals to enter treatment, motivational consequences of using these tactics have been neglected. Self-determination theory (SDT) provides a useful perspective for understanding client experiences of social controls and highlights the importance of self-determined motivation for long-term behavior change. This study assessed the construct validity of the Treatment Entry Questionnaire (TEQ), a brief scale derived from SDT to measure identified, introjected, and external treatment motivation. Two independent samples of clients entering Canadian residential and outpatient treatment completed TEQ items (ns = 529 and 623). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a 9-item version of the scale, with 3 factors aligning with SDT motivational subtypes. Subscales showed high internal consistency and correlated as expected with social controls and perceived coercion at treatment entry. The TEQ-9 is a valid option for assessing self-determined motivation in clinical practice and evaluating coerced addiction treatment.
This study characterizes treatment-seeking female users of illicit drugs in Finland, and examines possible differences among women with or without children under 18.
The subjects were 2526 drug-using clients from the Helsinki metropolitan area, who sought treatment at Helsinki Deaconess Institute between 2001 and 2008. A total of 775 (30.6%) were females with complete information regarding their parental status. Of these, 225 (29%) had children under 18. The proportion of women with children varied between 20% and 30% annually, except in 2006, when it peaked at 40.5%.
Women with children were more likely to be somewhat older (p
This study is based on interviews with 53 male alcoholics. Its purpose was to study the relationship between childhood conditions, history of alcohol and drug misuse and assaultive and suicidal behaviour. Fifty-seven per cent of the alcoholics reported a history of violent behaviour. Hidden violence, often towards women, was common. One-third of the violent patients had a history of attempted suicide compared to 17% in the non-violent group. The assaultive alcoholics also had a more violent childhood, a higher proportion of fathers with alcohol problems and had started drinking earlier in life. Drug addiction was much more common in this group too. We find support for our hypothesis that there is a positive correlation between violence in the parental home and assaultive and suicidal behaviour and drug misuse later in life. When violent and non-violent alcoholics are compared many of the same characteristics appear as when suicidal and non-suicidal and type 2 and type 1 alcoholics are compared. This study raises the question of adding attempted suicide as a characteristic of the type 2 alcoholic.
In 1984, Paul Hanki of Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, developed community mobile treatment, an innovative approach to substance abuse treatment in Native communities. The feature that distinguishes community mobile treatment from most other forms of treatment is the strong emphasis on community involvement. Before an actual treatment program is implemented, the community must acknowledge that a substance abuse problem exists and be committed and involved in addressing the problem. Once a community is mobilized, a 21 to 28 day intensive alcohol and drug treatment program for substance abusers and their families is brought into the community. Since its inception in 1984, community mobile treatment has been implemented in approximately 17 Canadian communities. The few evaluations that have been conducted suggest that this approach holds much promise in reducing alcohol and drug-related problems. This article reviews the existing documentation and provides a comprehensive description of this unique approach.