From 3,548 drug overdose or abuse cases presenting at 21 Metropolitan Toronto hospitals' Emergency departments, data concerning demographic and medical characteristics, investigative and management procedures, drug analysis services, and disposition of patients were collected. Of the 3,548 cases, 2,723 (77%) were acute overdose and 816 (23%) were drug abuse. Drug overdose was more common than drug abuse for both sexes, but was more characteristic of females. The drugs most frequently alleged ingested were benzodiazepines (34%), ethanol (32%), salicylates (16%), and barbiturates (14%). The frequency with which particular classes of drugs are alleged in overdose corresponds closely to the frequency of prescribing these drugs in Ontario.
OBJECTIVE: An increasing and serious heroin overdose problem in Oslo has mandated the increasing out-of-hospital use of naloxone administered by paramedics. The aim of this study was to determine the frequencies and characteristics of adverse events related to this out-of-hospital administration by paramedics. METHODS: A one-year prospective observational study from February 1998 to January 1999 was performed in patients suspected to be acutely overdosed by an opioid. A total of 1192 episodes treated with naloxone administered by the Emergency Medical Service system in Oslo, were included. The main outcome variable was adverse events observed immediately after the administration of naloxone. RESULTS: The mean age of patients included was 32.6 years, and 77% were men. Adverse events suspected to be related to naloxone treatment were reported in 45% of episodes. The most common adverse events were related to opioid withdrawal (33%) such as gastrointestinal disorders, aggressiveness, tachycardia, shivering, sweating and tremor. Cases of confusion/restlessness (32%) might be related either to opioid withdrawal or to the effect of the heroin in combination with other drugs. Headache and seizures (25%) were probably related to hypoxia. Most events were non-serious. In three episodes (0.3%) the patients were hospitalized because of adverse events. CONCLUSION: Although adverse events were common among patients treated for opioid overdose in an out-of-hospital setting, serious complications were rare. Out-of-hospital naloxone treatment by paramedics seems to save several lives a year without a high risk of serious complications.
To verify the validity of self-reported data on service use from clients with mental or substance abuse disorders in Montreal and Quebec services for homeless individuals.
To compare the self-reported data from the Enquête chez les personnes itinérantes (Fournier, 2001) on health service use with official data from Quebec health services (MEDECHO and RAMQ).
The analysis shows a moderate-to-high level of concordance between the self-reported and the official data. Almost every item analyzed presents moderate but significant intraclass correlation coefficients for general and psychiatric hospitalization and use of psychiatric medication, but lower and nonsignificant coefficients for medical hospitalization. Participant characteristics such as mental disorders, homeless status, and substance abuse problems do not seem to have an impact on data validity.
The answers on health service use from individuals with mental health problems, homeless status, or substance abuse problems are generally valid in the results presented. Thus the self-reported data from these individiuals seems to be a generally valid source of data and an affordable one for research on service use or other domains.
Mood disorders, especially bipolar disorder (BD), frequently are associated with substance use disorders (SUDs). There are well-designed trials for the treatment of SUDs in the absence of a comorbid condition. However, one cannot generalize these study results to individuals with comorbid mood disorders, because therapeutic efficacy and/or safety and tolerability profiles may differ with the presence of the comorbid disorder. Therefore, a review of the available evidence is needed to provide guidance to clinicians facing the challenges of treating patients with comorbid mood disorders and SUDs.
We reviewed the literature published between January 1966 and November 2010 by using the following search strategies on PubMed. Search terms were bipolar disorder or depressive disorder, major (to exclude depression, postpartum; dysthymic disorder; cyclothymic disorder; and seasonal affective disorder) cross-referenced with alcohol or drug or substance and abuse or dependence or disorder. When possible, a level of evidence was determined for each treatment using the framework of previous Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments recommendations. The lack of evidence-based literature limited the authors' ability to generate treatment recommendations that were strictly evidence based, and as such, recommendations were often based on the authors' opinion.
Even though a large number of treatments were investigated for alcohol use disorder (AUD), none have been sufficiently studied to justify the attribution of level 1 evidence in comorbid AUD with major depressive disorder (MDD) or BD. The available data allows us to generate first-choice recommendations for AUD comorbid with MDD and only third-choice recommendations for cocaine, heroin, and opiate SUD comorbid with MDD. No recommendations were possible for cannabis, amphetamines, methamphetamines, or polysubstance SUD comorbid with MDD. First-choice recommendations were possible for alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine SUD comorbid with BD and only second-choice recommendations for heroin, amphetamine, methamphetamine, and polysubstance SUD comorbid with BD. No recommendations were possible for opiate SUD comorbid with BD. Finally, psychotherapies certainly are considered an essential component of the overall treatment of SUDs comorbid with mood disorders. However, further well-designed studies are needed in order to properly assess their potential role in specific SUDs comorbid with a mood disorder.
Although certain treatments show promise in the management of mood disorders comorbid with SUDs, additional well-designed studies are needed to properly assess their potential role in specific SUDs comorbid with a mood disorder.
American Indian children and adolescents suffer from a high prevalence of alcohol, drug, and mental (ADM) disorders. Unfortunately, the systems of services for these children and youth have never been able to address adequately their mental health needs. Thus, the revolutionary changes now taking place within these service systems, in particular the marked increase in the direct provision of services by Indian tribes and organizations, provides a unique opportunity to address these historical shortcomings. In this paper, we describe our existing knowledge concerning the quality of ADM services for American Indian children and adolescents and their critical sociodemographic, sociocultural, and epidemiologic contexts. We then consider the implications of these studies for improving the quality of care as well as its measurement and monitoring.
OBJECTIVES: The aim is to investigate whether different modalities and orientations of psychotherapy diverge with regard to patient characteristics and treatment goals, in a naturalistic setting for patients with substance use disorders. DESIGN: All psychotherapies (N=262) during a year were surveyed at the Centre for Dependency Disorders, Stockholm County Council. Data were collected from the psychotherapists (N=38). METHODS: A therapist questionnaire was used, covering the topics of interest. Data regarding problems and goals were categorized using a qualitative clustering method. Differences between therapy formats were analysed using statistical methods. RESULTS: The prevalence of psychological problems among the patients was high (88%). Patients in cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) and family therapy (FT) had less severe psychological problems than patients in the other psychotherapy formats. With regard to treatment goals, FT focused on improved family relations, group therapies on relational improvements, psychodynamic therapies on insight and improved functioning, while CBT focused on behaviour change and improved motivation for change. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest a shortcoming of the aim of the EST movement to consider reduction of target symptom as the only relevant treatment goal and to compare the efficacy of different treatments in this regard.