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A 5-year follow-up study of adolescents who sought treatment for substance misuse in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107628
Source
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2014 May;23(5):347-60
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2014
Author
Sheilagh Hodgins
Sara Lövenhag
Mattias Rehn
Kent W Nilsson
Author Affiliation
Maria-Ungdom Research Centre, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2014 May;23(5):347-60
Date
May-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - psychology
Antisocial Personality Disorder - diagnosis - epidemiology
Comorbidity
Crime - psychology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Parents
Patient Acceptance of Health Care - statistics & numerical data
Poverty - statistics & numerical data
Prevalence
Residence Characteristics
Risk factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Substance Abuse Treatment Centers
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology - psychology - therapy
Sweden - epidemiology
Urban Population
Violence - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Previous studies have shown that substance misuse in adolescence is associated with increased risks of hospitalizations for mental and physical disorders, convictions for crimes, poverty, and premature death from age 21 to 50. The present study examined 180 adolescent boys and girls who sought treatment for substance misuse in Sweden. The adolescents and their parents were assessed independently when the adolescents first contacted the clinic to diagnose mental disorders and collect information on maltreatment and antisocial behavior. Official criminal files were obtained. Five years later, 147 of the ex-clients again completed similar assessments. The objectives were (1) to document the prevalence of alcohol use disorders (AUD) and drug use disorders (DUD) in early adulthood; and (2) to identify family and individual factors measured in adolescence that predicted these disorders, after taking account of AUD and DUD in adolescence and treatment. Results showed that AUD, DUD, and AUD + DUD present in mid-adolescence were in most cases also present in early adulthood. Prediction models detected no positive effect of treatment in limiting persistence of these disorders. Thus, treatment-as-usual provided by the only psychiatric service for adolescents with substance misuse in a large urban center in Sweden failed to prevent the persistence of substance misuse. Despite extensive clinical assessments of the ex-clients and their parents, few factors assessed in mid-adolescence were associated with substance misuse disorders 5 years later. It may be that family and individual factors in early life promote the mental disorders that precede adolescent substance misuse.
PubMed ID
23989597 View in PubMed
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Comorbidity in Alaska: evidence and implications for treatment and public policy.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature75401
Source
Alaska Med. 2004 Jan-Mar;46(1):4-17
Publication Type
Article

Co-occurrence between mental distress and poly-drug use: a ten year prospective study of patients from substance abuse treatment.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature270475
Source
Addict Behav. 2015 Sep;48:71-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2015
Author
Jasmina Burdzovic Andreas
Grethe Lauritzen
Trond Nordfjaern
Source
Addict Behav. 2015 Sep;48:71-8
Date
Sep-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Female
Hospitalization
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Prospective Studies
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology - psychology - therapy
Surveys and Questionnaires
Young Adult
Abstract
Longitudinal research investigating psychiatric trajectories among patients with poly-drug use patterns remains relatively scant, even though this specific population is at elevated risk for multiple negative outcomes. The present study examined temporal associations between poly-drug use (i.e. heroin, cannabis, tranquilizers, and amphetamines) and mental distress over a 10-year period.
A clinical cohort of 481 patients was recruited from substance use treatment facilities in Norway, and prospectively interviewed 1, 2, 7 and 10years after the initial data collection at treatment admission. At each assessment participants completed a questionnaire addressing their substance use and mental distress. Longitudinal growth models were used to examine whether, and if so, how, levels of drug use were associated with the level and rate of change in mental distress over time.
Results from the longitudinal growth models showed a co-occurrence between active poly-drug use and mental distress, such that there was a dose-response effect where mental distress increased both in magnitude and over time with the number of drugs used. Reduction in mental distress during the 10-year study period was evident only in the no-drug use condition. Use of multiple drugs and mental distress appear strongly co-related over time.
Pre-treatment assessment should carefully identify individuals manifesting poly-drug use and mental disorders. Treatment and follow-up services should be tailored to their specific needs.
PubMed ID
26004857 View in PubMed
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Criminality among female drug abusers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature10517
Source
J Psychoactive Drugs. 1999 Oct-Dec;31(4):353-62
Publication Type
Article
Author
S. Byqvist
Author Affiliation
Department of Social Work, Stockholm University, Sweden.
Source
J Psychoactive Drugs. 1999 Oct-Dec;31(4):353-62
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Chi-Square Distribution
Cluster analysis
Crime - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Questionnaires
Sex Factors
Statistics, nonparametric
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology - psychology - therapy
Abstract
Criminality among female (n=351) drug abusers is compared to that of men (n=798) as part of a longitudinal study of persons in treatment in Sweden (the SWEDATE project). The extent of criminality was much less among females than among males, and fewer women than men were criminal. The pattern of criminality varied between the sexes. Women's crime debuts occurred later, and they committed less violent crimes and more drug-related crimes. The majority of women supported themselves in other ways than with criminality. Also, women tended to have a more severe pattern of abuse, a more rapid drug career, and more complex psychological problems than men. A subgroup of prostitutes whose drug of choice was heroin often began drug use early with cannabis and went on to amphetamine for their first injection, which often took place in a junkie pad. There was also a criminal group (as there was among men) with a very early and intensive juvenile delinquency pattern, early drug debuts and a rapid transition to regular abuse and extensive adult criminality. Forty-two percent of the women had no criminal records; they had more extensive multiple drug abuse than the other women (this was also true for the noncriminal male addicts). The study shows that drug abuse and criminality are interrelated for certain individuals, but not for others.
PubMed ID
10681102 View in PubMed
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Gas sniffing as a form of substance abuse.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature240860
Source
Can J Psychiatry. 1984 Feb;29(1):31-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1984
Author
G. Remington
B F Hoffman
Source
Can J Psychiatry. 1984 Feb;29(1):31-5
Date
Feb-1984
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Child
Child, Preschool
Female
Gasoline
Humans
Indians, North American - psychology
Male
Middle Aged
Ontario
Petroleum
Social Environment
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology - psychology - therapy
Abstract
The authors review the existing literature on inhalation of gasoline fumes, highlighting the acute and chronic physical and psychological effects. The clinical picture of gas sniffing includes visual hallucinations, changes in consciousness, euphoria, nystagmus, dizziness, weakness and tremors. There is the possibility of rapid recovery, sudden death or brain damage with chronic abuse. When leaded gasoline is abused then blood and urine lead levels and erythrocytic delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydrase (ALAD) levels may be helpful. Although the treatment of acute and chronic gas sniffing syndromes is often supportive and non-specific, when lead levels are high chelated therapy is indicated including British anti-lewisite, calcium disodium versenate or D-penicillamine. We also report our findings on an isolated native Indian population where intentional gas sniffing has reached epidemic proportions. Ten percent of the total population and 25% of the children between 5 and 15 years of age had been identified as gasoline inhalation abusers. In this population, the most important etiological factors included environmental, family and cultural components. The authors emphasize the need to correct the family and social deficiencies in such communities if the incidence of gas sniffing is to be decreased.
PubMed ID
6704883 View in PubMed
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Mental illness in a rural area: a Norwegian psychiatric epidemiological study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature82086
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2006 Sep;41(9):713-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2006
Author
Kringlen Einar
Torgersen Svenn
Cramer Victoria
Author Affiliation
Department for Psychiatry, University of Oslo, Vinderen, Box 85, 0319 Oslo, Norway. einar.kringlen@medisin.uio.no
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2006 Sep;41(9):713-9
Date
Sep-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Female
Humans
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology - psychology - therapy
Mental Health Services - utilization
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Prevalence
Registries
Rural Population - statistics & numerical data
Severity of Illness Index
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology - psychology - therapy
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Few epidemiological studies have compared less well-integrated urban areas with well-integrated rural areas with the same methods. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of mental disorder in a socially stable demographic western region of Norway and make comparison with previously observed prevalence figures of mental illness in Oslo, the capital of Norway. METHOD: A random sample of the 107,738 residents of Sogn and Fjordane, a western rural region of Norway, age 18-65 years, was drawn from the Norwegian Population Register. A total of 1,080 subjects, 63% of the original sample, were interviewed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. RESULTS: The mean age of the subjects was 39.2 years. The 12-month prevalence of mental illness was 16.5% and the lifetime prevalence was 30.9%. Simple phobia and social phobia had the highest 12-month prevalence whereas alcohol abuse and major depression had the highest lifetime prevalence. All mental disorders were more prevalent in women than in men, with the exception of alcohol and drug abuse. Severe psychopathology was found in 2.2% (12 month prevalence) and 5.1% (lifetime prevalence). These observations show that the 12-month and the lifetime prevalence of mental illness in this western area is approximately half the rate of figures observed for Oslo. CONCLUSION: Epidemiological figures for a western rural region of Norway showing 12-month and the lifetime prevalence of mental disorder are considerably lower than figures obtained in studies from the capital of Norway. However, the same basic pattern of mental illness can be observed in the rural as in the urban area of Oslo, with alcohol abuse/dependence and major depression being the most common disorders at both sites. The sex pattern is also the same with higher figures for women both in rural and urban areas with the exception of alcohol and drug abuse being higher in men.
PubMed ID
16732397 View in PubMed
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Multiple adverse outcomes over 30 years following adolescent substance misuse treatment.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature90085
Source
Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2009 Jun;119(6):484-93
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2009
Author
Hodgins S.
Larm P.
Molero-Samuleson Y.
Tengström A.
Larsson A.
Author Affiliation
Department of Forensic Mental Health Science, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, UK. s.hodgins@iop.kcl.ac.uk
Source
Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2009 Jun;119(6):484-93
Date
Jun-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - psychology
Adult
Age Factors
Crime - legislation & jurisprudence
Drug Users - legislation & jurisprudence - statistics & numerical data
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Juvenile Delinquency - statistics & numerical data
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Patient Acceptance of Health Care
Poverty - statistics & numerical data
Prevalence
Residence Characteristics
Risk factors
Substance Abuse Treatment Centers
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology - psychology - therapy
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To compare outcomes over 30 years experienced by individuals who as adolescents entered substance misuse treatment and a general population sample. METHOD: All 1992 individuals seen at the only clinic for substance misusing adolescents in Stockholm from 1968 to 1971 were compared to 1992 individuals randomly selected from the Swedish population, matched for sex, age and birthplace. Death, hospitalization for physical illness related to substance misuse, hospitalization for mental illness, substance misuse, criminal convictions and poverty were documented from national registers. RESULTS: Relative risks of death, physical illness, mental illness, substance misuse, criminal convictions and poverty were significantly elevated in the clinic compared to the general population sample. After adjustment for substance misuse in adulthood, the risks of death, physical and mental illness, criminality and poverty remained elevated. CONCLUSION: Adolescents who consult for substance misuse problems are at high risk for multiple adverse outcomes over the subsequent 30 years.
PubMed ID
19207133 View in PubMed
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Source
Duodecim. 1998;114(20):2094-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
1998
Author
P. Hakkarainen
Author Affiliation
Turun yliopisto Sosiologian laitos 20014 Turun yliopisto. pekka.hakkarainen@utu.fi
Source
Duodecim. 1998;114(20):2094-5
Date
1998
Language
Finnish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Attitude to Health
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Socioeconomic Factors
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology - psychology - therapy
PubMed ID
11717733 View in PubMed
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Substance Use Disorders Among Danish Physicians: An Explorative Study of the Professional Socialization and Management of Colleagues With Substance Use Disorders.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature281731
Source
J Addict Med. 2016 Jul-Aug;10(4):248-54
Publication Type
Article
Author
Johanne Korsdal Srensen
Anette Fischer Pedersen
Peter Vedsted
Niels Henrik Bruun
Bo Christensen
Source
J Addict Med. 2016 Jul-Aug;10(4):248-54
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Humans
Interprofessional Relations
Physicians - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Socialization
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology - psychology - therapy
Abstract
This study has 2 aims. Firstly, we explore and analyze the associations between physicians' unhealthy substance use and various work-cultural and social aspects; secondly, we describe how substance use disorder (SUD defined as by Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test [AUDIT] and Drug Use Disorders Identification Test [DUDIT]) among colleagues is managed and how physicians seek help.
During the spring of 2014, a nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted as an anonymous electronic survey among a randomly weighted sample of medical specialists, junior hospital doctors, and general practitioners in Denmark. A total of 4000 physicians (approximately 1333 from each group) were sampled, and 1943 responded (49%). The survey included the AUDIT, the DUDIT, and questions on health and psychological issues.
Among the physicians in our study, 18.3% had an AUDIT exceeding 8 (hazardous or harmful alcohol use) and 3.2% had a DUDIT exceeding 1. Of these, 12.9% reported that their substance use had negative consequences for their social networks, and 34% to 42% reported no openness about substance use at their workplace. In total, 4 physicians (1%) of the 383 physicians with risky substance use reported to have been in regular treatment for SUDs. Most of the physicians with an unhealthy consumption of substances (78%) reported that it was irrelevant for them to seek help. Half of them reported that they had limited or insufficient knowledge of SUD. Around 55% of the physicians would encourage colleagues with SUDs to seek treatment.
Around 50% of physicians reported that their "SUD knowledge" was relevant, but limited or not satisfactory. One-third never experienced openness about SUD at work. More than half wished to encourage a colleague with SUD to seek treatment. Three quarters of the physicians with unhealthy substance use reported that they found it irrelevant to seek help.
PubMed ID
27379820 View in PubMed
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Talking about parental substance abuse with children: eight families' experiences of Beardslee's family intervention.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290089
Source
Nord J Psychiatry. 2017 Jul; 71(5):395-401
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jul-2017
Author
Heljä Pihkala
Neda Dimova-Bränström
Mikael Sandlund
Author Affiliation
a Psychiatric Clinic , Skellefteå Hospital , Skellefteå , Sweden.
Source
Nord J Psychiatry. 2017 Jul; 71(5):395-401
Date
Jul-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Child
Child of Impaired Parents - psychology
Child, Preschool
Family - psychology
Family Health
Family Therapy - methods
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Parents - psychology
Scandinavian and Nordic Countries - epidemiology
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology - psychology - therapy
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Many children are affected by parental substance use disorder. Beardslee's family intervention (BFI) is a family-based psycho-educative method for children of mentally ill parents, used in psychiatric practise in several Nordic countries. The method has also been used to some extent when a parent suffers from substance use disorder.
The aim of the study was to explore the family members' experiences of the BFI when a parent has a diagnosis of substance use disorder, to gain new knowledge about the process of the BFI in this area.
Ten children and 14 parents were interviewed about their experiences 6 months after a BFI. The interviews were analyzed by qualitative content analysis. The children's psychological symptoms were measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire at baseline and after 6 months.
Increased openness about the substance use disorder in the families was a recurrent theme throughout the material and a central issue reported in the children's experiences. The children had a high level of psychological symptoms according to the SDQ at baseline, but the majority of them felt that the BFI made a positive difference in their families and for themselves. The parents reported improved wellbeing of their children.
Positive experienced effects for children and parents are reported in families with parental substance use disorder, with possible connection to use of BFI. The present study suggests that Beardslee's family intervention is applicable as a preventive method for children in families with a parent suffering from substance use disorder.
PubMed ID
28367660 View in PubMed
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11 records – page 1 of 2.