Acute non-lethal poisonings with drugs within the period of 10 years according to archives data of Toxicological center and medicolegal department of victims' examination in Leningrad medicolegal expert Bureau were analysed. Number of drug poisoning cases increased two-fold and formed 76% of all poisoning cases. Tranquilizers, then antihistaminic, neuroleptic and hypotensive (clofelin) agents were used most often. Drugs were taken with suicidal attempt or with the aim of getting "alcoholic" effect. Poisonings among women were registered three times more often than among men.
To study alcohol and drug addiction incidence in students exposed to the Dawson College shooting within the 18 months following the event, to identify the precursors of a psychoactive substance addiction development while considering the severity of event exposure, and to examine whether alcohol use, 18 months after the event, is related to any of the various posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom groups.
The population of this study was comprised of all the Dawson College students at the time of the event. Analyses were conducted with 854 students enrolled in the college at the time of the shooting.
Five per cent of women and 7% of men showed, for the first time in their life, a problem with substance addiction following the shooting. In men, young age, lifetime suicidal ideation, and having seen the killer during the shooting are the main precursors of incident accident cases. None of the studied precursors were significant in women. Men and women were also different in terms of PTSD symptoms predicting alcohol use 18 months after the shooting.
The study highlights the importance of considering a person's sex when studying their psychoactive substance use following a trauma.
OBJECTIVES: To examine the prevalence of chronic headache (> or =15 days/month) associated with analgesic overuse in relation to age and gender and the association between analgesic overuse and chronic pain (i.e., migraine, nonmigrainous headache, neck and low-back pain). METHODS: In the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 1995 to 1997 (HUNT-2), a total of 51,383 subjects responded to headache questions (Head-HUNT), of which 51,050 completed questions related to musculoskeletal symptoms and 49,064 questions regarding the use of analgesics. RESULTS: The prevalence of chronic headache associated with analgesic use daily or almost daily for > or =1 month was 1% (1.3% for women and 0.7% for men) and for analgesic overuse duration of > or =3 months 0.9% (1.2% for women and 0.6% for men). Chronic headache was more than seven times more likely among those with analgesic overuse (> or =1 month) than those without (odds ratio [OR] = 7.5, 95% CI: 6.6 to 8.5). Upon analysis of the different chronic pain subgroups separately, the association with analgesic overuse was strongest for chronic migraine (OR = 10.3, 95% CI: 8.1 to 13.0), intermediate for chronic nonmigrainous headache (OR = 6.2, 95% CI: 5.3 to 7.2), and weakest for chronic neck (OR = 2.6, 95% CI: 2.3 to 2.9) and chronic low-back (OR = 3.0, 95% CI: 2.7 to 3.3) pain. The association became stronger with increasing duration of analgesic use for all groups and was most evident among those with headache, especially those with migraine. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic headache associated with analgesic overuse is prevalent and especially chronic migraine is more strongly associated with frequent intake of analgesics than other common pain conditions like chronic neck and chronic low-back pain.
Rates of drug abuse are higher among divorced individuals than among those who are married, but it is not clear whether divorce itself is a risk factor for drug abuse or whether the observed association is confounded by other factors. We examined the association between divorce and onset of drug abuse in a population-based Swedish cohort born during 1965-1975 (n = 651,092) using Cox proportional hazards methods, with marital status as a time-varying covariate. Potential confounders (e.g., demographics, adolescent deviance, and family history of drug abuse) were included as covariates. Parallel analyses were conducted for widowhood and drug-abuse onset. In models with adjustments, divorce was associated with a substantial increase in risk of drug-abuse onset in both sexes (hazard ratios > 5). Co-relative analyses (among biological relatives) were consistent with a partially causal role of divorce on drug-abuse onset. Widowhood also increased risk of drug-abuse onset, although to a lesser extent. Divorce is a potent risk factor for onset of drug abuse, even after adjusting for deviant behavior in adolescence and family history of drug abuse. The somewhat less-pronounced association with widowhood, particularly among men, suggests that the magnitude of association between divorce and drug abuse may not be generalizable to the end of a relationship.
Studies have raised concern on the cardiovascular safety of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). We studied safety of NSAID therapy in a nationwide cohort of healthy individuals.
With the use of individual-level linkage of nationwide administrative registers, we identified a cohort of individuals without hospitalizations 5 years before first prescription claim of NSAIDs and without claimed drug prescriptions for selected concomitant medication 2 years previously. The risk of cardiovascular death, a composite of coronary death or nonfatal myocardial infarction, and fatal or nonfatal stroke associated with the use of NSAIDs was estimated by case-crossover and Cox proportional hazard analyses. The entire Danish population age 10 years or more consisted of 4,614,807 individuals on January 1, 1997, of which 2,663,706 (57.8%) claimed at least 1 prescription for NSAIDs during 1997 to 2005. Of these; 1,028,437 individuals were included in the study after applying selection criteria regarding comorbidity and concomitant pharmacotherapy. Use of the nonselective NSAID diclofenac and the selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor rofecoxib was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular death (odds ratio, 1.91; 95% confidence interval, 1.62 to 2.42; and odds ratio, 1.66; 95% confidence interval, 1.06 to 2.59, respectively), with a dose-dependent increase in risk. There was a trend for increased risk of fatal or nonfatal stroke associated with ibuprofen treatment (odds ratio, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 1.63), but naproxen was not associated with increased cardiovascular risk (odds ratio for cardiovascular death, 0.84; 95% confidence interval, 0.50 to 1.42).
Individual NSAIDs have different degrees of cardiovascular safety, which must be considered when choosing appropriate treatment. In particular, rofecoxib and diclofenac were associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity and should be used with caution in most individuals, whereas our results suggest that naproxen has a safer cardiovascular risk-profile.
Retrospective data from 7,871 individuals age 16 to 64 were used to investigate whether, among those diagnosed with lifetime social phobia, its symptoms serve to link life events and chronic strains in childhood with symptoms of drug dependence in adulthood. Findings suggest social phobia as a pathway through which early life events and chronic strains affect the development of drug-related problems. Implications for research and clinical practice are discussed.
The agonist-antagonist opioids are clinically effective analgesics with generally low abuse potential. Four agonist-antagonists are currently available for use as analgesics. Pentazocine, butorphanol and nalbuphine produce morphine-like effects in low doses and, to varying degrees, dysphoric effects as the dose is increased. Buprenorphine, an antagonist opioid of slow onset but long duration of action, produces morphine agonist effects at lower doses, and as the dose is increased, antagonist effects with minimal or no dysphoria. Clinical experience with pentazocine indicates that abuse is possible and consists of two main types: misuse (and abuse) of the drug alone by patients during treatment for pain and, abuse of the drug, often taken together with other psychoactive agents, as a substitute for the preferred drug of abuse. Few reports of abuse have appeared for butorphanol, nalbuphine and buprenorphine; however, considerable care is recommended in their use in patients, especially where there is the possibility for abuse as might occur in patients who require long-term treatment, with a history of drug abuse, and where the drug is easily obtained.
Individuals with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) constitute a special population that may be at particularly high risk for substance use. The purpose of the current study was to estimate the utilization of specialized addiction treatment services (SATS) and the associated cost, as a part of the total cost of health care associated with FASD in Canada.
The current study was a modeling study. Data on SATS by lifetime mental disorder status were obtained from the Drug and Alcohol Treatment Information System (DATIS) in Ontario, Canada for 2010/11. The number of clients with FASD who received SATS in Ontario in 2010/11 was estimated, assuming that approximately 37% (confidence interval: 21.6%-54.5%) of individuals with FASD abuse or are addicted to alcohol and/or drugs and that their utilization rate of SATS is the same as those for people with a lifetime mental disorder. The data from DATIS was then extrapolated to the total Canadian population.
The cost of SATS for clients with FASD in Canada in 2010/11 ranged from $1.65 million Canadian dollars (CND) to $3.59 million CND, based on 5,526 outpatient visits and 9,529 resident days. When the sensitivity analysis was performed the cost of SATS ranged from $979 thousand CND to $5.34 million CND.
Special attention must be paid to at-risk groups of individuals such as those with FASD, in order to reduce the likelihood of the development of co-morbid substance abuse problems, and thus, reducing the overall burden on Canadian society.
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