Retaining guardianship of one's infant is often a priority for pregnant women who use substances, and may be beneficial to infants when they are safe in their mothers' care. Previous studies from the United States have identified several maternal psychosocial characteristics associated with the ability to keep an infant free from abuse or neglect; however, little is known about the impact of multiple risk factors on guardianship, particularly in Canadian intervention programs.
To describe maternal characteristics associated with child guardianship among pregnant women at risk of an alcohol and/or substance exposed pregnancy who attended a Canadian home visitation program.
Guardianship status at 6 months post-enrolment was extracted from a provincial program's records for all women enrolled between November 1999 and May 2005 (n=64). Bivariate analyses were performed to determine client characteristics most likely to have retained guardianship.
At follow-up, 70% of participants were guardians of the index infant. Higher income, more prenatal care, no history of sexual abuse, better alcohol and psychiatric scores, and fewer risk factors on a cumulative risk index were significantly associated with retaining guardianship at 6 month follow-up (p
OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility, patient and clinician acceptability and test-retest reliability of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) used by non-psychiatrists in an acute psychiatric ward. METHOD: Of 268 consecutive patients included in a cross-sectional study, 176 (66%) completed MINI, and were compared to patients not interviewed. Patients and clinicians were questioned about the interview, using Visual Analogue Scales (VAS). For 38 patients, test-retest reliability was assessed with Cohen's kappa and observed agreement. RESULTS: MINI was not feasible for all patients. Among factors associated with not being interviewed were early discharge, psychosis, substance use and involuntary admissions. Although evaluations by patients and clinicians completing the postinterview questionnaire varied, MINI was generally perceived as being useful and feasible. Psychotic symptoms were associated with a less positive experience with MINI for both patients and clinicians. In the test-retest analyses, kappa values indicated excellent agreement for six diagnoses, fair to good for six and poor for seven, whereas observed agreement was 75% or above for all disorders. CONCLUSION: Among patients admitted to an acute psychiatric ward willing and able to complete the interview, MINI was well accepted by patients and clinicians, and has moderately good test-retest reliability.
There is little knowledge of predictors for involuntary hospitalizations in acute psychiatric units.
The Multi-center study of Acute Psychiatry included all cases of acute consecutive psychiatric admissions in twenty acute psychiatric units in Norway, representing about 75% of the acute psychiatric units during 2005-2006. Data included admission process, rating of Global Assessment of Functioning and Health of the Nation Outcome Scales.
Fifty-six percent were voluntary and 44% involuntary hospitalized. Regression analysis identified contact with police, referral by physicians who did not know the patient, contact with health services within the last 48 h, not living in own apartment or house, high scores for aggression, level of hallucinations and delusions, and contact with an out-of office clinic within the last 48 h and low GAF symptom score as predictors for involuntary hospitalization. Involuntary patients were older, more often male, non-Norwegian, unmarried and had lower level of education. They more often had disability pension or received social benefits, and were more often admitted during evenings and nights, found to have more frequent substance abuse and less often responsible for children and were less frequently motivated for admission. Involuntary patients had less contact with psychiatric services before admission. Most patients were referred because of a deterioration of their psychiatric illness.
Involuntary hospitalization seems to be guided by the severity of psychiatric symptoms and factors "surrounding" the referred patient. Important factors seem to be male gender, substance abuse, contact with own GP, aggressive behavior, and low level of social functioning and lack of motivation. There was a need for assistance by the police in a significant number of cases. This complicated picture offers some important challenges to the organization of primary and psychiatric health services and a need to consider better pathways to care.
This paper is a retrospective study with a five year follow-up which examines the variations in substance use and the determinants of these variations. This exploratory research studied a sub-sample of 22 participants, selected from an initial sample of 197 patients with concurrent substance use and other mental health disorders. At the quantitative level, the statistical analysis shows an improvement in the problematic use of alcohol and drugs but no change in psychological state, health, family and interpersonals relations, as well as employment. At the qualitative level, the analysis of the participant's subjective view indicates that the two main elements of progression in substance use are the effects and the availability of substances. The main elements of reduction in substance use are the use of services, the personal techniques developed by participants, the family network, physical health, lack of financial resources, "occupational" activities, and a process of maturation.
Motivation is a widely used concept in substance use treatment, and is commonly seen as a premise for change during treatment. Different measures of motivation have been suggested. A relatively new instrument is the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test-Extended (DUDIT-E), developed in Sweden. This instrument has recently been introduced in Norway. The present study examined the Motivational Index of the Norwegian version of the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test-Extended (DUDIT-E). We tested whether the three-factor model ("Positive aspects of substance abuse"; "Negative aspects of substance abuse"; and "Treatment readiness") suggested by previous studies could be replicated in a sample of Norwegian inpatients. Responses to the DUDIT-E were obtained from 105 patients admitted to inpatient substance abuse treatment in Northern Norway. Exploratory common factor analyses were used to compare the factor structure from the current sample with the Swedish sample of mainly detoxification patients and prison inmates. The current sample did not include prison inmates, and it consisted of more women than the Swedish sample. The samples did not differ according to age or substance dependency. The analyses suggested that six primary factors was the most efficient way of combining the item scores, and not 11 as in the Swedish sample. A second-order factor analysis found best support for a two-factor solution, and hence, did not replicate the previously suggested three-factor model either. Several regression analyses comparing the efficiency of the different ways of combining the DUDIT scores in primary or secondary factor scores indicated that the model involving six sum scores had best merit and should be explored further.
Among clients who have been screened already for drug-related problems, the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test--Extended (DUDIT-E) maps the frequency of illicit drug use (D), the positive (P) and negative (N) aspects of drug use, and treatment readiness (T). D scores correlated with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition diagnoses among 154 heavy drug users from criminal justice and drug detoxification settings, as well as with urine test results in drug detoxification units. One-week test/retest intraclass correlation coefficients among 92 male prison inmates were .90, .78, .75, and .84 for D, P, N, and T scores, respectively. Cronbach's alpha were .88-.95 for P score, .88-.93 for N score, and .72-.81 for T score. Principal components analysis supported construct validity for P, N, and T scores. T scores were higher in prison treatment units than in motivational and regular units without treatment emphasis. Motivational index scores differentiated between three categories of heavy drug users; they did not differentiate between prisons and unit types, but this corresponded to unclear structural differentiation between units.
Studies defining the course and outcome of people experiencing their first episode psychosis (FEP) generally report an improvement in symptoms and functioning. Little is known about the follow-up arrangements offered to patients when their time in a FEP comes to an end.
Our study focuses on a sample of FEP patients (n = 292) who were followed for up to 3 years in a multi-element specialized FEP service.
Improvement in positive symptoms and social functioning, but not negative symptoms, was observed in this sample both for people who completed 3 years in the program and for those who left early. About 40% were referred to specialized mental health services, whereas 24% were followed by their family physician. Patients who were followed by family physicians had decreased symptoms and improved functioning.
Most patients treated in an early psychosis program will need follow-up, the largest group will require specialized mental health services in the community, but a significant group can be followed by family physicians.