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A 3-year follow-up study of Swedish youths committed to juvenile institutions: Frequent occurrence of criminality and health care use regardless of drug abuse.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature288173
Source
Int J Law Psychiatry. 2017 Jan - Feb;50:52-60
Publication Type
Article
Author
Ola Ståhlberg
Sofia Boman
Christina Robertsson
Nóra Kerekes
Henrik Anckarsäter
Thomas Nilsson
Source
Int J Law Psychiatry. 2017 Jan - Feb;50:52-60
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Comorbidity
Crime - legislation & jurisprudence - statistics & numerical data
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Health Services - legislation & jurisprudence - utilization
Humans
Juvenile Delinquency - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Male
Outcome Assessment (Health Care) - statistics & numerical data
Recurrence
Residential Treatment - legislation & jurisprudence - statistics & numerical data
Risk factors
Substance-Related Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Sweden
Violence - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control - psychology
Young Adult
Abstract
This 3-year follow-up study compares background variables, extent of criminality and criminal recidivism in the form of all court convictions, the use of inpatient care, and number of early deaths in Swedish institutionalized adolescents (N=100) with comorbid substance use disorders (SUD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (n=25) versus those with SUD but no ADHD (n=30), and those without SUD (n=45). In addition it aims to identify whether potential risk factors related to these groups are associated with persistence in violent criminality. Results showed almost no significant differences between the three diagnostic groups, but the SUD plus ADHD group displayed a somewhat more negative outcome with regard to criminality, and the non-SUD group stood out with very few drug related treatment episodes. However, the rate of criminal recidivism was strikingly high in all three groups, and the use of inpatient care as well as the number of untimely deaths recorded in the study population was dramatically increased compared to a age matched general population group. Finally, age at first conviction emerged as the only significant predictor of persistence in violent criminality with an AUC of .69 (CI (95%) .54-.84, p=.02). Regardless of whether SUD, with or without ADHD, is at hand or not, institutionalized adolescents describe a negative course with extensive criminality and frequent episodes of inpatient treatment, and thus requires a more effective treatment than present youth institutions seem to offer today. However, the few differences found between the three groups, do give some support that those with comorbid SUD and ADHD have the worst prognosis with regard to criminality, health, and untimely death, and as such are in need of even more extensive treatment interventions.
PubMed ID
27745884 View in PubMed
Less detail

[Abuse of psychoactive drugs and social adjustment of psychotic patients].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature203535
Source
Can J Psychiatry. 1998 Dec;43(10):1036-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1998
Author
A. Lépine
G. Côté
Author Affiliation
Département de psychologie, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, Québec.
Source
Can J Psychiatry. 1998 Dec;43(10):1036-9
Date
Dec-1998
Language
French
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alcoholism - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Comorbidity
Humans
Male
Patient Admission - statistics & numerical data
Prisoners - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Psychotic Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Psychotropic Drugs
Quebec
Social Adjustment
Substance-Related Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Abstract
Is the abuse of psychoactive drugs in psychotic patients linked to social adjustment?
Fifty-five psychotic men from a detention centre or a psychiatric hospital were assessed with the Social Adjustment Scale (SAS-II) and a French version of the Phillips Rating Scale of Premorbid Adjustment in Schizophrenia.
In psychotic patients, the abuse of psychoactive drugs is linked to some indicators of social adjustment and premorbid sexual adaptation.
Differences were found in some aspects of social functioning, but it is difficult to establish an overall assessment of social adjustment.
PubMed ID
9868570 View in PubMed
Less detail

ADHD in adult psychiatry. Minimum rates and clinical presentation in general psychiatry outpatients.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature91338
Source
Nord J Psychiatry. 2009;63(1):64-71
Publication Type
Article
Date
2009
Author
Nylander L.
Holmqvist M.
Gustafson L.
Gillberg C.
Author Affiliation
Psychiatric Clinic, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden. lena.nylander@skane.se
Source
Nord J Psychiatry. 2009;63(1):64-71
Date
2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alcoholism - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Ambulatory Care - statistics & numerical data
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Comorbidity
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Male
Mass Screening - statistics & numerical data
Mental Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Middle Aged
Neuropsychological Tests
Personality Assessment
Questionnaires
Street Drugs
Substance-Related Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Sweden
Abstract
The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence and comorbidity of persisting attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adult psychiatric outpatients. Consecutive patients, first visits excluded, at a general psychiatric outpatient clinic were offered a screening for childhood ADHD with the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS). One hundred and forty-one patients out of 398 (35%) completed and returned the scale. Patients above or near cut-off for ADHD (n=57) were offered an extensive clinical evaluation with psychiatric as well as neuropsychological examination. The attrition was analysed regarding age, sex and clinical diagnoses. Out of the screened sample, 40% had scores indicating possible childhood ADHD. These 57 patients were invited to the clinical part of the study, but 10 declined assessment, leaving 47 (37 women and 10 men) who were actually examined. Thirty of these (21 women and nine men) met diagnostic criteria for ADHD at the time of examination. Among the patients with ADHD, affective disorders were the most common psychiatric diagnoses. The rate of alcohol and/or substance abuse, as noted in the medical records, was also high in the ADHD group. In the WURS-screened group, 22% (30 patients assessed as part of this study and one person with ADHD previously clinically diagnosed) were shown to have persisting ADHD. Therefore, it is clearly relevant for psychiatrists working in general adult psychiatry to have ADHD in mind as a diagnostic option, either as the patient's main problem or as a functional impairment predisposing for other psychiatric disorders.
PubMed ID
18991159 View in PubMed
Less detail

[Adolescents with substance use disorders--a challenging patient group with multiple problems].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature190135
Source
Duodecim. 2000;116(18):1939-41
Publication Type
Article
Date
2000

Adverse childhood experiences among women prisoners: relationships to suicide attempts and drug abuse.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature256618
Source
Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2014 Feb;60(1):40-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2014
Author
Christine Friestad
Rustad Åse-Bente
Ellen Kjelsberg
Author Affiliation
1Oslo University Hospital and Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Norway.
Source
Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2014 Feb;60(1):40-6
Date
Feb-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Child
Child Abuse - diagnosis - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Comorbidity
Crime - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Cross-Sectional Studies
Emigrants and Immigrants - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Family Conflict - psychology
Female
Humans
Interview, Psychological
Life Change Events
Likelihood Functions
Norway
Prisoners - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Risk factors
Risk-Taking
Spouse Abuse - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Statistics as Topic
Substance-Related Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Suicide, Attempted - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Women prisoners are known to suffer from an accumulation of factors known to increase the risk for several major health problems. This study examines the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACE) and the relationship between such experiences and suicide attempts and drug use among incarcerated women in Norway.
A total of 141 women inmates (75% of all eligible) were interviewed using a structured interview guide covering information on demographics and a range of ACE related to abuse and neglect, and household dysfunction. The main outcome variables were attempted suicide and adult drug abuse.
Emotional, physical and sexual abuse during childhood was experienced by 39%, 36% and 19%, respectively, and emotional and physical neglect by 31% and 33%, respectively. Looking at the full range of ACE, 17% reported having experienced none, while 34% reported having experienced more than five ACEs. After controlling for age, immigrant background and marital status, the number of ACEs significantly increased the risk of attempted suicide and current drug abuse.
The associations observed between early life trauma and later health risk behaviour indicate the need for early prevention. The findings also emphasize the important role of prison health services in secondary prevention among women inmates.
PubMed ID
23045353 View in PubMed
Less detail

Alcohol and drug abuse among sexual and nonsexual offenders: relationship to intimacy deficits and coping strategy.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature178703
Source
Sex Abuse. 2004 Jun;16(3):177-89
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2004
Author
Jan Looman
Jeffrey Abracen
Roberto DiFazio
Greg Maillet
Author Affiliation
Regional Treatment Centre, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Sex Abuse. 2004 Jun;16(3):177-89
Date
Jun-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Adult
Age Factors
Alcoholism - epidemiology - psychology
Analysis of Variance
Child
Child Abuse, Sexual - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Emotions
Female
Humans
Incest - psychology
Male
Middle Aged
Ontario
Rape - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Stress, Psychological
Substance-Related Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Violence - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Three groups of subjects (N = 95) consisting or rapists, child molesters, and a comparison group of violent offenders were examined with reference to history of alcohol abuse, history of drug abuse, intimacy deficits, and emotionally based coping strategies. No differences were found between the two groups of sex offenders on any of the measures examined. Sex offenders were found to be significantly older than the comparison group. When age was entered as a covariate sex offenders were found to have significantly more difficulties with alcohol use as measured by the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test (MAST) and were significantly more likely to use emotionally based coping strategies as measured by the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS). No differences were found between any of the groups with reference to drug abuse as measured by the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST). Results are discussed in terms of Marshall's theory of intimacy deficits in sexual offenders.
PubMed ID
15326879 View in PubMed
Less detail

Antenatal depression, substance dependency and social support.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature194225
Source
J Affect Disord. 2001 Jun;65(1):9-17
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2001
Author
M. Pajulo
E. Savonlahti
A. Sourander
H. Helenius
J. Piha
Author Affiliation
Child Psychiatry Clinic, University of Turku, Finland.
Source
J Affect Disord. 2001 Jun;65(1):9-17
Date
Jun-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cross-Sectional Studies
Depression, Postpartum - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Depressive Disorder - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Mass Screening
Personality Inventory
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Prenatal Care
Risk assessment
Social Support
Substance-Related Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence of depression and factors associated with depressive mood among pregnant women.
391 women who were 14-37 weeks pregnant were evaluated with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Screen (EPDS), which has also been validated for prenatal use. Four questionnaires were used in order to explore associated factors: a questionnaire on background and pregnancy data, the Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory (SASSI) and two Social Support Questionnaires (SSQ1 and 2).
7.7% of the total sample screened positive on the EPDS with a cut-off point of 12/13 recommended. Substance dependency and experienced difficulties in social environment had an independently significant association with maternal depression.
The caseness was defined with a self-report instrument.
Substance dependency and experienced difficulties, especially in relation to friends, partner and own mother, are associated with antenatal depression. It is important to be aware of this when developing interventions in maternity care primary units.
PubMed ID
11426516 View in PubMed
Less detail

Are there mental health differences between francophone and non-francophone populations in manitoba?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature256463
Source
Can J Psychiatry. 2014 Jul;59(7):366-75
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2014
Author
Mariette Jeanne Chartier
Gregory Finlayson
Heather Prior
Kari-Lynne Mcgowan
Hui Chen
Randy Walld
Janelle De Rocquigny
Author Affiliation
Research Scientist, Manitoba Centre for Health Policy, Department of Community Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba; Assistant Professor, Department of Community Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba.
Source
Can J Psychiatry. 2014 Jul;59(7):366-75
Date
Jul-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Communication Barriers
Cross-Cultural Comparison
Cross-Sectional Studies
Cultural Characteristics
Female
Health Surveys
Hierarchy, Social
Humans
Language
Life Style
Male
Manitoba
Mental Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Middle Aged
Substance-Related Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Suicide - statistics & numerical data
Suicide, Attempted - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Francophones may experience poorer health due to social status, cultural differences in lifestyle and attitudes, and language barriers to health care. Our study sought to compare mental health indicators between Francophones and non-Francophones living in the province of Manitoba.
Two populations were used: one from administrative datasets housed at the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy and the other from representative survey samples. The administrative datasets contained data from physician billings, hospitalizations, prescription drug use, education, and social services use, and surveys included indicators on language variables and on self-rated health.
Outside urban areas, Francophones had lower rates of diagnosed substance use disorder (rate ratio [RR] = 0.80; 95% CI 0.68 to 0.95) and of suicide and suicide attempts (RR = 0.59; 95% CI 0.43 to 0.79), compared with non-Francophones, but no differences were found between the groups across the province in rates of diagnosed mood disorders, anxiety disorders, dementia, or any mental disorders after adjusting for age, sex, and geographic area. When surveyed, Francophones were less likely than non-Francophones to report that their mental health was excellent, very good, or good (66.9%, compared with 74.2%).
The discrepancy in how Francophones view their mental health and their rates of diagnosed mental disorders may be related to health seeking behaviours in the Francophone population. Community and government agencies should try to improve the mental health of this population through mental health promotion and by addressing language and cultural barriers to health services.
PubMed ID
25007420 View in PubMed
Less detail

Assessing reciprocal association between drunkenness, drug use, and delinquency during adolescence: Separating within- and between-person effects.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296538
Source
Drug Alcohol Depend. 2018 10 01; 191:286-293
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
10-01-2018
Author
Russell Turner
Kristian Daneback
Anette Skårner
Author Affiliation
Department of Social Work, University of Gothenburg, 40530 Gothenburg, Sweden. Electronic address: russell.turner@socwork.gu.se.
Source
Drug Alcohol Depend. 2018 10 01; 191:286-293
Date
10-01-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - psychology
Alcoholic Intoxication - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Cohort Studies
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Juvenile Delinquency - psychology
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Prospective Studies
Substance-Related Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Surveys and Questionnaires
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Longitudinal reciprocal associations between substance use and delinquency are understudied in general adolescent populations, with previous research showing differing findings. This study aims to assess reciprocal associations between drunkenness, drug use and delinquency in a prospective, age-homogenous cohort study, using an analytical strategy that separates within- from between-person variance.
Data comes from the Longitudinal Research on Development in Adolescence (LoRDIA) study in Sweden. Adolescents were surveyed at baseline (age 13, grade 7, N?=?1409) and followed-up at grades 8 and 9. Random-intercept cross-lagged panel analysis was undertaken.
Between-person variance in the development of drunkenness, drug use, and delinquency were between 26% and 47%. At the within-person level, the links between these behaviors were only weak: delinquency was associated with later drug use across grades 7-9, and with drunkenness between grades 8-9 only; drunkenness was associated with later drug use between grades 7-8. Drug use was not associated with later delinquency or drunkenness at any time point.
Stable individual factors play a larger than a hitherto known role in within- and over-time relationships between drunkenness, drug use, and delinquency. Longitudinal reciprocal associations between these behaviors are at best weak and such associations may not be of primary importance in practice with general adolescent populations. Moreover, the behaviors appear to follow three distinct developmental pathways, to which intervention design may need to pay attention.
Reciprocal associations between drunkenness, drug use, and delinquency were assessed, highlighting the differential developmental pathways of these behaviors in early-mid adolescence.
PubMed ID
30165329 View in PubMed
Less detail

Association of family background with adolescent smoking and regular use of illicit substances among underage psychiatric in-patients.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature90921
Source
J Addict Dis. 2008;27(4):69-79
Publication Type
Article
Date
2008
Author
Laukkanen Matti
Hakko Helinä
Riala Kaisa
Räsänen Pirkko
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland.
Source
J Addict Dis. 2008;27(4):69-79
Date
2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - psychology
Adolescent, Institutionalized - psychology
Child
Diagnosis, Dual (Psychiatry)
Family Health
Family Relations
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Hospitals, Psychiatric
Humans
Logistic Models
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Mental Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Poverty
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Smoking - epidemiology - psychology
Substance-Related Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Abstract
This study investigated whether adolescent's family type was associated with regular smoking or the use of illicit substances (cannabis or hard drugs) among underage adolescent psychiatric in-patients. The sample consisted of 471 adolescents aged 12-17 years admitted to psychiatric hospital between April 2001 and March 2006 at Oulu University Hospital, Finland. The information on family factors and substance use was based on the Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children, Present and Lifetime interview and the European modification of the Addiction Severity Index questionnaire. Compared to adolescent boys from two-parent families, those from child welfare placement were more likely to regularly use both cannabis (odds ratio [OR]=4.4; 95%confidence interval [CI]=1.4-13.7; P=.012) and hard drugs (OR=8.4; 95% CI=1.7-42.1; P=.01).Among girls, no association was found between family type and the use of illicit substances. Two-parent or foster family units may protect adolescents from involvement with illicit substances. In clinical adolescent psychiatric practice more attention should be paid to family interventions and parental support.
PubMed ID
19062350 View in PubMed
Less detail

79 records – page 1 of 8.