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A 3-year follow-up study of Swedish youths committed to juvenile institutions: Frequent occurrence of criminality and health care use regardless of drug abuse.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature288173
Source
Int J Law Psychiatry. 2017 Jan - Feb;50:52-60
Publication Type
Article
Author
Ola Ståhlberg
Sofia Boman
Christina Robertsson
Nóra Kerekes
Henrik Anckarsäter
Thomas Nilsson
Source
Int J Law Psychiatry. 2017 Jan - Feb;50:52-60
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Comorbidity
Crime - legislation & jurisprudence - statistics & numerical data
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Health Services - legislation & jurisprudence - utilization
Humans
Juvenile Delinquency - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Male
Outcome Assessment (Health Care) - statistics & numerical data
Recurrence
Residential Treatment - legislation & jurisprudence - statistics & numerical data
Risk factors
Substance-Related Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Sweden
Violence - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control - psychology
Young Adult
Abstract
This 3-year follow-up study compares background variables, extent of criminality and criminal recidivism in the form of all court convictions, the use of inpatient care, and number of early deaths in Swedish institutionalized adolescents (N=100) with comorbid substance use disorders (SUD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (n=25) versus those with SUD but no ADHD (n=30), and those without SUD (n=45). In addition it aims to identify whether potential risk factors related to these groups are associated with persistence in violent criminality. Results showed almost no significant differences between the three diagnostic groups, but the SUD plus ADHD group displayed a somewhat more negative outcome with regard to criminality, and the non-SUD group stood out with very few drug related treatment episodes. However, the rate of criminal recidivism was strikingly high in all three groups, and the use of inpatient care as well as the number of untimely deaths recorded in the study population was dramatically increased compared to a age matched general population group. Finally, age at first conviction emerged as the only significant predictor of persistence in violent criminality with an AUC of .69 (CI (95%) .54-.84, p=.02). Regardless of whether SUD, with or without ADHD, is at hand or not, institutionalized adolescents describe a negative course with extensive criminality and frequent episodes of inpatient treatment, and thus requires a more effective treatment than present youth institutions seem to offer today. However, the few differences found between the three groups, do give some support that those with comorbid SUD and ADHD have the worst prognosis with regard to criminality, health, and untimely death, and as such are in need of even more extensive treatment interventions.
PubMed ID
27745884 View in PubMed
Less detail
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2011 Nov 1;131(21):2122-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1-2011
Author
Jørgen G Bramness
Siren Haugland
Author Affiliation
Senter for rus og avhengighetsforskning, Universitetet i Oslo, Norway. j.g.bramness@medisin.uio.no
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2011 Nov 1;131(21):2122-5
Date
Nov-1-2011
Language
Norwegian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
4-Butyrolactone - metabolism - poisoning
Citric Acid Cycle
Drug Overdose - diagnosis - etiology - prevention & control
Europe - epidemiology
Humans
Norway - epidemiology
Sodium Oxybate - poisoning
Solvents - poisoning
Street Drugs - poisoning
Substance Withdrawal Syndrome - diagnosis
Substance-Related Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - prevention & control
Abstract
Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is naturally present in the human body, but may also be used as an intoxicating drug. Information from several sources has suggested its increased availability and use in Norway. There have also been reports of an increasing use of the chemical precursor gamma-butyrolactone (GBL).There is currently a need for knowledge on symptoms, addictiveness and overdoses, as well as targeted preventive measures.
The article is based on a discretionary selection of articles resulting from a literature search in PubMed, as well as reports from Norwegian and European authorities and research institutions.
An intake of small amounts of GHB produces an intoxicating effect, whereas higher doses can result in poisoning. Deaths have been reported. The effect may be variable, due to a steep dose-response curve and interaction with alcohol and other intoxicants. Treatment of poisoning is symptomatic and supportive. Treatment of abstinence is also supportive, while delirium may be treated as delirium tremens.
Preventive measures should be tailored specifically to potential user-groups.
PubMed ID
22048208 View in PubMed
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[Abuse of psychoactive drugs and social adjustment of psychotic patients].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature203535
Source
Can J Psychiatry. 1998 Dec;43(10):1036-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1998
Author
A. Lépine
G. Côté
Author Affiliation
Département de psychologie, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, Québec.
Source
Can J Psychiatry. 1998 Dec;43(10):1036-9
Date
Dec-1998
Language
French
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alcoholism - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Comorbidity
Humans
Male
Patient Admission - statistics & numerical data
Prisoners - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Psychotic Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Psychotropic Drugs
Quebec
Social Adjustment
Substance-Related Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Abstract
Is the abuse of psychoactive drugs in psychotic patients linked to social adjustment?
Fifty-five psychotic men from a detention centre or a psychiatric hospital were assessed with the Social Adjustment Scale (SAS-II) and a French version of the Phillips Rating Scale of Premorbid Adjustment in Schizophrenia.
In psychotic patients, the abuse of psychoactive drugs is linked to some indicators of social adjustment and premorbid sexual adaptation.
Differences were found in some aspects of social functioning, but it is difficult to establish an overall assessment of social adjustment.
PubMed ID
9868570 View in PubMed
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ADHD in adult psychiatry. Minimum rates and clinical presentation in general psychiatry outpatients.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature91338
Source
Nord J Psychiatry. 2009;63(1):64-71
Publication Type
Article
Date
2009
Author
Nylander L.
Holmqvist M.
Gustafson L.
Gillberg C.
Author Affiliation
Psychiatric Clinic, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden. lena.nylander@skane.se
Source
Nord J Psychiatry. 2009;63(1):64-71
Date
2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alcoholism - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Ambulatory Care - statistics & numerical data
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Comorbidity
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Male
Mass Screening - statistics & numerical data
Mental Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Middle Aged
Neuropsychological Tests
Personality Assessment
Questionnaires
Street Drugs
Substance-Related Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Sweden
Abstract
The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence and comorbidity of persisting attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adult psychiatric outpatients. Consecutive patients, first visits excluded, at a general psychiatric outpatient clinic were offered a screening for childhood ADHD with the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS). One hundred and forty-one patients out of 398 (35%) completed and returned the scale. Patients above or near cut-off for ADHD (n=57) were offered an extensive clinical evaluation with psychiatric as well as neuropsychological examination. The attrition was analysed regarding age, sex and clinical diagnoses. Out of the screened sample, 40% had scores indicating possible childhood ADHD. These 57 patients were invited to the clinical part of the study, but 10 declined assessment, leaving 47 (37 women and 10 men) who were actually examined. Thirty of these (21 women and nine men) met diagnostic criteria for ADHD at the time of examination. Among the patients with ADHD, affective disorders were the most common psychiatric diagnoses. The rate of alcohol and/or substance abuse, as noted in the medical records, was also high in the ADHD group. In the WURS-screened group, 22% (30 patients assessed as part of this study and one person with ADHD previously clinically diagnosed) were shown to have persisting ADHD. Therefore, it is clearly relevant for psychiatrists working in general adult psychiatry to have ADHD in mind as a diagnostic option, either as the patient's main problem or as a functional impairment predisposing for other psychiatric disorders.
PubMed ID
18991159 View in PubMed
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[Adolescents with substance use disorders--a challenging patient group with multiple problems].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature190135
Source
Duodecim. 2000;116(18):1939-41
Publication Type
Article
Date
2000

Adverse childhood experiences among women prisoners: relationships to suicide attempts and drug abuse.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature256618
Source
Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2014 Feb;60(1):40-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2014
Author
Christine Friestad
Rustad Åse-Bente
Ellen Kjelsberg
Author Affiliation
1Oslo University Hospital and Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Norway.
Source
Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2014 Feb;60(1):40-6
Date
Feb-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Child
Child Abuse - diagnosis - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Comorbidity
Crime - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Cross-Sectional Studies
Emigrants and Immigrants - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Family Conflict - psychology
Female
Humans
Interview, Psychological
Life Change Events
Likelihood Functions
Norway
Prisoners - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Risk factors
Risk-Taking
Spouse Abuse - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Statistics as Topic
Substance-Related Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Suicide, Attempted - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Women prisoners are known to suffer from an accumulation of factors known to increase the risk for several major health problems. This study examines the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACE) and the relationship between such experiences and suicide attempts and drug use among incarcerated women in Norway.
A total of 141 women inmates (75% of all eligible) were interviewed using a structured interview guide covering information on demographics and a range of ACE related to abuse and neglect, and household dysfunction. The main outcome variables were attempted suicide and adult drug abuse.
Emotional, physical and sexual abuse during childhood was experienced by 39%, 36% and 19%, respectively, and emotional and physical neglect by 31% and 33%, respectively. Looking at the full range of ACE, 17% reported having experienced none, while 34% reported having experienced more than five ACEs. After controlling for age, immigrant background and marital status, the number of ACEs significantly increased the risk of attempted suicide and current drug abuse.
The associations observed between early life trauma and later health risk behaviour indicate the need for early prevention. The findings also emphasize the important role of prison health services in secondary prevention among women inmates.
PubMed ID
23045353 View in PubMed
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Age and remission of psychiatric disorders.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature207575
Source
Can J Psychiatry. 1997 Sep;42(7):722-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1997
Author
R C Bland
S C Newman
H. Orn
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, University of Alberta, Edmonton.
Source
Can J Psychiatry. 1997 Sep;42(7):722-9
Date
Sep-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Alberta - epidemiology
Alcoholism - diagnosis - epidemiology - rehabilitation
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Mental Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - rehabilitation
Middle Aged
Personality Assessment
Sex Factors
Substance-Related Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - rehabilitation
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
To examine the relationship between remission of psychiatric disorders and age.
We interviewed 3258 randomly selected adult residents of Edmonton using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS), which yielded DIS/DSM-III diagnoses. Remission was defined as being free of symptoms of the index lifetime disorder in the year preceding the interview, this being the difference between the lifetime and one-year prevalence. For each age group, the proportion of cases with and without symptoms in the preceding year was calculated. Numbers and proportions of cases were estimated after adjusting to the census population and weighting for household size. Only the more common disorders were examined; any comorbidities were ignored.
Drug abuse or dependence, antisocial personality disorder (in both sexes), and alcohol abuse or dependence (in men) all showed remission rates that increased with age. Panic disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) showed a decreased likelihood of remission with increasing age. Major depression and phobias showed little tendency to remission with age. Considering all disorders together, the one-year remission rate for all ages combined was only 33.2%, with a tendency for lower remission rates to be found in those aged 55 to 64.
As may be expected, antisocial personality, drug abuse or dependence, and alcohol abuse or dependence tend to show increased remission rates with increasing age. In OCD and panic disorder, the low rates of remission found in all age groups indicate that these disorders produce significant long-term morbidity. For depression, which had an overall remission rate of less than 50%, the stable low rate of remission probably indicates not only the difficulties of treatment but also the low rates at which cases get treated.
PubMed ID
9307832 View in PubMed
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Age, period and cohort trends in drug abuse hospitalizations within the total Swedish population (1975-2010).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature105832
Source
Drug Alcohol Depend. 2014 Jan 1;134:355-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1-2014
Author
Giuseppe N Giordano
Henrik Ohlsson
Kenneth S Kendler
Marilyn A Winkleby
Kristina Sundquist
Jan Sundquist
Author Affiliation
Center for Primary Health Care Research, Lund University, Jan Waldenströmsgata 35, CRC, building 28, floor 11, entrance 72, Malmö University Hospital, Malmö, S-205 02, Sweden. Electronic address: giuseppe_nicola.giordano@med.lu.se.
Source
Drug Alcohol Depend. 2014 Jan 1;134:355-61
Date
Jan-1-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Cohort Studies
Female
Hospitalization - trends
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Population Surveillance - methods
Substance-Related Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - therapy
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
The societal consequences of drug abuse (DA) are severe and well documented, the World Health Organization recommending tracking of population trends for effective policy responses in treatment of DA and delivery of health care services. However, to correctly identify possible sources of DA change, one must first disentangle three different time-related influences on the need for treatment due to DA: age effects, period effects and cohort effects.
We constructed our main Swedish national DA database (spanning four decades) by linking healthcare data from the Swedish Hospital Discharge Register to individuals, which included hospitalisations in Sweden for 1975-2010. All hospitalized DA cases were identified by ICD codes. Our Swedish national sample consisted of 3078,129 men and 2921,816 women. We employed a cross-classified multilevel logistic regression model to disentangle any net age, period and cohort effects on DA hospitalization rates.
We found distinct net age, period and cohort effects, each influencing the predicted probability of hospitalisation for DA in men and women. Peak age for DA in both sexes was 33-35 years; net period effects showed an increase in hospitalisation for DA from 1996 to 2001; and in birth cohorts 1968-1974, we saw a considerable reduction (around 75%) in predicted probability of hospitalisation for DA.
The use of hospital admissions could be regarded as a proxy of the population's health service use for DA. Our results may thus constitute a basis for effective prevention planning, treatment and other appropriate policy responses.
PubMed ID
24300899 View in PubMed
Less detail

[Alarming figures on inmates at Swedish prisons. Mental disorders are common among the inmates].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature209541
Source
Lakartidningen. 1997 Jan 8;94(1-2):46-50
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-8-1997

Alcohol and drug abuse among sexual and nonsexual offenders: relationship to intimacy deficits and coping strategy.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature178703
Source
Sex Abuse. 2004 Jun;16(3):177-89
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2004
Author
Jan Looman
Jeffrey Abracen
Roberto DiFazio
Greg Maillet
Author Affiliation
Regional Treatment Centre, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Sex Abuse. 2004 Jun;16(3):177-89
Date
Jun-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Adult
Age Factors
Alcoholism - epidemiology - psychology
Analysis of Variance
Child
Child Abuse, Sexual - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Emotions
Female
Humans
Incest - psychology
Male
Middle Aged
Ontario
Rape - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Stress, Psychological
Substance-Related Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Violence - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Three groups of subjects (N = 95) consisting or rapists, child molesters, and a comparison group of violent offenders were examined with reference to history of alcohol abuse, history of drug abuse, intimacy deficits, and emotionally based coping strategies. No differences were found between the two groups of sex offenders on any of the measures examined. Sex offenders were found to be significantly older than the comparison group. When age was entered as a covariate sex offenders were found to have significantly more difficulties with alcohol use as measured by the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test (MAST) and were significantly more likely to use emotionally based coping strategies as measured by the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS). No differences were found between any of the groups with reference to drug abuse as measured by the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST). Results are discussed in terms of Marshall's theory of intimacy deficits in sexual offenders.
PubMed ID
15326879 View in PubMed
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191 records – page 1 of 20.