The need for safe, accessible, client-centred, alcohol withdrawal services for seniors was recognized by health service workers in Victoria. A partnership of health and support service organizations developed and implemented a pilot project for treating alcohol withdrawal in the home. The project provided service that integrated well with a substance-abuse treatment program for seniors.
Buprenorphine misuse by injecting drug users was assessed in a survey of 350 needle exchangers, either amphetamine (57%) or heroin users (42%). 89% of heroin users and 24% of amphetamine users reported using buprenorphine at some time during the previous year. Most users reported illicit acquisition. Among illicit users, 87% of heroin users reported intake for withdrawal treatment or self-detoxification, and 11% for euphoria. Euphoria seeking was more common among amphetamine users (62%, p
The objective of the study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of nicotine nasal solution (NNS) for smoking cessation from the stopping day up to 3 months. We also followed the participants for 2 yrs after ceasing smoking to assess what happens after stopping using NNS. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind, 2 yr prospective study, 157 smokers were given either NNS, one dose containing 1 mg of nicotine per 100 microL (n=79), or placebo (n=78). Treatment was continued for up to 1 yr. One day after quitting smoking, the average number of daily doses was 11 in the group assigned NNS and 14 in the group assigned the placebo, and after 6 weeks, 14 and 6 doses, respectively, among abstinent participants still using spray. After 3 months, 65% of the abstainers in the nicotine group were still using the NNS. The abstinence rates were 51, 39 and 29% after 6 weeks, 3 and 6 months, respectively, as compared to 24, 19 and 18% in the placebo group (p=0.0003; p=0.003; p=0.050). The proportion abstinent at the 1 yr (25 vs 17%) and 2 yr follow-ups (19 vs 14%) was higher among those assigned to the nicotine than to the placebo group, but not significantly so for the numbers used in the study. In conclusion, the use of nicotine nasal spray significantly increased the abstinence rate during the first 6 months following the quitting day.
A pilot study was conducted in the Russian city Novosibirsk during 2006-2007 with 40 participants sampled from clients admitted to health services for drinking-related problems to explore surrogates for alcoholic beverage drinking using semistructured interviews. Types of surrogates consumed and reasons for their consumption were investigated. Results revealed that the most prevalent reported surrogate used was industrial spirit. The main reasons for drinking surrogates were the high affordability and physical availability of surrogates combined with the need to relieve severe withdrawal symptoms. The study limitations are described, and suggestions for future research are made.
Cites: Addiction. 2007 Apr;102(4):544-5317362291
Cites: Lancet. 2007 Jun 16;369(9578):2001-917574092
Clinical data are presented on a new anti-alcoholic drug, litonit. A substantial reduction in the pathological addiction to alcohol takes place under the effect of litonit, and a stable aversive reaction to alcohol develops. The new drug is distinguished by its low toxicity, good tolerance, and its failure to cause disorders of the liver and kidneys even after chronic administration.
As Indiana dentists become involved in office-based smoking cessation efforts, they can prescribe the recently-developed Federal Drug Administration (FDA)-approved nicotine transdermal patch delivery systems for their smoking patients who wish to overcome nicotine addiction. This article reviews the evolutionary and scientific development of transdermal nicotine patch systems within an oral health setting. It discusses dental office-based cessation programs which have been designed by faculty members at the Indiana University School of Dentistry and by dentists who work with the National Cancer Institute. Finally, it presents the rationale for patch usage and specific techniques which are utilized in prescribing and monitoring this medication.