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Alcohol and sexual risk reduction interventions among people living in Russia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263496
Source
AIDS Behav. 2014 Oct;18(10):1835-46
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2014
Author
Chiao-Wen Lan
Lori A J Scott-Sheldon
Kate B Carey
Blair T Johnson
Michael P Carey
Source
AIDS Behav. 2014 Oct;18(10):1835-46
Date
Oct-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alcohol Drinking - epidemiology - prevention & control - psychology
Condoms - utilization
European Continental Ancestry Group
HIV Infections - epidemiology - prevention & control - psychology
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Prostitution - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Risk Reduction Behavior
Risk-Taking
Russia - epidemiology
Sexual Behavior - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Socioeconomic Factors
Substance Abuse, Intravenous - epidemiology - prevention & control - psychology
Abstract
Russia has one of the highest rates of alcohol consumption and is experiencing one of the fastest-growing HIV epidemics in the world. Given these co-occurring health problems, we systematically reviewed combined alcohol and sexual risk interventions to reduce HIV among Russians. We completed comprehensive electronic searches to locate studies that (a) sampled people living in Russia, (b) used a behavioral intervention, and (c) assessed both alcohol and sexual risk behavior. These searches yielded 584 studies, of these, two were included. Compared with controls, intervention participants reported increasing their condom use (ds ranged from 0.12 to 0.85). Within-group improvements in sexual behaviors were found for both groups (ds ranged from 0.19 to 1.94); participants reported fewer sexual partners, more condom use, and reduced alcohol or drug use before sex. These findings support the need and potential benefits for alcohol and HIV interventions among Russians, and suggest directions for public policy.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24104461 View in PubMed
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Fentanyl use among street drug users in Toronto, Canada: behavioural dynamics and public health implications.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature156989
Source
Int J Drug Policy. 2009 Jan;20(1):90-2
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2009
Author
Michelle Firestone
Brian Goldman
Benedikt Fischer
Author Affiliation
Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Canada.
Source
Int J Drug Policy. 2009 Jan;20(1):90-2
Date
Jan-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Analgesics, Opioid - adverse effects - economics - supply & distribution
Behavior, Addictive
Drug Users - psychology
Drug and Narcotic Control
Female
Fentanyl - adverse effects - economics - supply & distribution
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Ontario - epidemiology
Opioid-Related Disorders - epidemiology - prevention & control - psychology
Public Health
Risk-Taking
Street Drugs - adverse effects - economics - legislation & jurisprudence - supply & distribution
Substance Abuse, Intravenous - epidemiology - prevention & control - psychology
Young Adult
Abstract
Prescription opioids (POs) are playing an increasingly central role in street drug use and related harms in North America. One distinct PO substance of interest is Fentanyl (Duragesic), a potent opioid analgesic designed for transdermal time-release application. Studies from Europe and North America have documented the sizeable overdose and mortality burden associated with the non-medical use of this drug. This study explores practices and risk dynamics associated with Fentanyl abuse, also considering public health implications. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 regular street-entrenched illicit PO users in Toronto, Canada, a sub-sample of which were recent Fentanyl users. Results showed that while relatively rare on the illicit PO market in Toronto, Fentanyl is a highly desired, sought after and relatively expensive PO drug among street users. In addition, the new 'matrix' patch technology implemented for Fentanyl since 2005 is a limited safeguard against abuse as simple extraction methods are utilized by street users. Finally, distinct risk behaviours relevant for public health emerge due to the high black market costs of Fentanyl and the extraction techniques applied, potentially facilitating high risks for infectious disease (e.g., HCV, HIV) transmission and/or overdose. Consequently, prevalence and practices of Fentanyl use by street users require closer monitoring, targeted interventions and further research regarding risks and outcomes.
PubMed ID
18508256 View in PubMed
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Injecting on the Island: a qualitative exploration of the service needs of persons who inject drugs in Prince Edward Island, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature104826
Source
Harm Reduct J. 2014;11:10
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Jessica M McCutcheon
Melanie A Morrison
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, University of Saskatchewan, 9 Campus Drive, Arts Building, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5A5, Canada. jessica.mccutcheon@usask.ca.
Source
Harm Reduct J. 2014;11:10
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Female
HIV Infections - prevention & control
Harm Reduction
Health Manpower - statistics & numerical data
Health Services Accessibility - standards - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Needle-Exchange Programs - supply & distribution
Needs Assessment
Patient Acceptance of Health Care - psychology
Pharmacies - supply & distribution
Prince Edward Island - epidemiology
Professional-Patient Relations
Social Stigma
Substance Abuse, Intravenous - epidemiology - prevention & control - psychology
Waiting Lists
Young Adult
Abstract
Few studies have investigated the service needs of persons who inject drugs (PWID) who live in less populated regions of Canada. With access to fewer treatment and harm reduction services than those in more urban environments, the needs of PWID in smaller centres may be distinct. As such, the present study examined the needs of PWID in Prince Edward Island (PEI), the smallest of Canada's provinces.
Eight PWID were interviewed about the services they have accessed, barriers they faced when attempting to access these services, and what services they need that they are not currently receiving.
Participants encountered considerable barriers when accessing harm reduction and treatment services due to the limited hours of services, lengthy wait times for treatment, and shortage of health care practitioners. They also reported experiencing considerable negativity from health care practitioners. Participants cited incidences of stigmatisation, and they perceived that health care practitioners received insufficient training related to drug use. Recommendations for the improvement of services are outlined.
The findings indicate that initiatives should be developed to improve PWID's access to harm reduction and treatment services in PEI. Additionally, health care practitioners should be offered sensitisation training and improved education on providing services to PWID. The findings highlight the importance of considering innovative alternatives for service provision in regions with limited resources.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24593319 View in PubMed
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Reading abilities of drug users in Anchorage, Alaska.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature5574
Source
J Drug Educ. 1995;25(1):73-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
1995
Author
M E Johnson
D G Fisher
D C Davis
H H Cagle
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, University of Alaska, Anchorage 99508, USA.
Source
J Drug Educ. 1995;25(1):73-80
Date
1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Alaska - epidemiology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Educational Status
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Pamphlets
Reading
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Substance Abuse, Intravenous - epidemiology - prevention & control - psychology
Abstract
Evaluated the reading abilities of 122 male and fifty-nine female intravenous and other drug users in Anchorage, Alaska. Reading abilities were assessed through the Reading subtest of the Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised and the short Form of the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test-Revised. Results indicated that men and Black subjects reported the highest levels of schooling completed. However, no differences were revealed across gender and ethnicity in actual reading levels. Among all subjects, the average reading ability was between 8.5 and 8.7 grade level. These scores place the average subject reading at a level lower than approximately 76 percent of the general population. Implications are provided for development of educational materials accessible for this population.
PubMed ID
7776151 View in PubMed
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Socializing in an open drug scene: the relationship between access to private space and drug-related street disorder.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature132913
Source
Drug Alcohol Depend. 2012 Jan 1;120(1-3):28-34
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1-2012
Author
Kora Debeck
Evan Wood
Jiezhi Qi
Eric Fu
Doug McArthur
Julio Montaner
Thomas Kerr
Author Affiliation
British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, Canada.
Source
Drug Alcohol Depend. 2012 Jan 1;120(1-3):28-34
Date
Jan-1-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Attitude
British Columbia - epidemiology
Cities
Female
Housing
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Privacy
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Social Behavior
Social Environment
Substance Abuse, Intravenous - epidemiology - prevention & control - psychology
Time Factors
Abstract
Limited attention has been given to the potential role that the structure of housing available to people who are entrenched in street-based drug scenes may play in influencing the amount of time injection drug users (IDU) spend on public streets. We sought to examine the relationship between time spent socializing in Vancouver's drug scene and access to private space.
Using multivariate logistic regression we evaluated factors associated with socializing (three+ hours each day) in Vancouver's open drug scene among a prospective cohort of IDU. We also assessed attitudes towards relocating socializing activities if greater access to private indoor space was provided.
Among our sample of 1114 IDU, 43% fit our criteria for socializing in the open drug scene. In multivariate analysis, having limited access to private space was independently associated with socializing (adjusted odds ratio: 1.80, 95% confidence interval: 1.28-2.55). In further analysis, 65% of 'socializers' reported positive attitudes towards relocating socializing if they had greater access to private space.
These findings suggest that providing IDU with greater access to private indoor space may reduce one component of drug-related street disorder. Low-threshold supportive housing based on the 'housing first' model that include safeguards to manage behaviors associated with illicit drug use appear to offer important opportunities to create the types of private spaces that could support a reduction in street disorder.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21764528 View in PubMed
Less detail