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1092 records – page 1 of 110.

2nd-generation HIV surveillance and injecting drug use: uncovering the epidemiological ice-berg.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature84543
Source
Int J Public Health. 2007;52(3):166-72
Publication Type
Article
Date
2007
Author
Reintjes Ralf
Wiessing Lucas
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health, Faculty Life Sciences, Hamburg University of Applied Sciences, Hamburg, Germany. Ralf.Reintjes@rzbd.haw-hamburg.de
Source
Int J Public Health. 2007;52(3):166-72
Date
2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome - epidemiology - prevention & control - therapy
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Europe - epidemiology
HIV Infections - epidemiology - prevention & control - therapy
Hepatitis C - epidemiology
Humans
Norway - epidemiology
Population Surveillance
Prevalence
Risk factors
Risk-Taking
Substance Abuse, Intravenous - epidemiology
Turkey - epidemiology
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: HIV/AIDS surveillance methods are under revision as the diversity of HIV epidemics is becoming more apparent. The so called "2nd generation surveillance (SGS) systems" aim to enhance surveillance by broadening the range of indicators to prevalence, behaviors and correlates, for a better understanding and a more complete and timely awareness of evolving epidemics. METHODS: Concepts of HIV SGS are reviewed with a special focus on injecting drug users, a major at-risk and hard to reach group in Europe, a region with mainly low or concentrated epidemics. RESULTS: The scope of HIV/AIDS surveillance needs to be broadened following principles of SGS. Specifically for IDUs we propose including hepatitis C data as indicator for injecting risk in routine systems like those monitoring sexually transmitted infections and information on knowledge and attitudes as potential major determinants of risk behavior. CONCLUSIONS: The suggested approach should lead to more complete and timely information for public health interventions, however there is a clear need for comparative validation studies to assess the validity, reliability and cost-effectiveness of traditional and enhanced HIV/AIDS surveillance systems.
PubMed ID
17958283 View in PubMed
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[4-year experience of the Lund model for HIV/AIDS prevention. Needle-exchange program as a bridge to continued care of drug addicts]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature8257
Source
Lakartidningen. 1991 May 8;88(19):1797, 1799
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-8-1991

15,000 Canadians are HIV positive and don't know it. Injection drug use now number one risk factor.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature192785
Source
HIV Prev Plus. 1999;1(1):1-2
Publication Type
Article
Date
1999

A 25-year follow-up study of drug addicts hospitalised for acute hepatitis: present and past morbidity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature7324
Source
Eur Addict Res. 2003 Apr;9(2):80-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2003
Author
Susanne Rogne Gjeruldsen
Bjørn Myrvang
Stein Opjordsmoen
Author Affiliation
Department of Infectious Diseases, Ullevål University Hospital, Oslo, Norway. s.m.r.gieruldsen@iwoks.uio.no
Source
Eur Addict Res. 2003 Apr;9(2):80-6
Date
Apr-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Adult
Alcoholism - diagnosis - epidemiology
Comorbidity
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Follow-Up Studies
HIV Seropositivity - diagnosis - epidemiology
Health Behavior
Hepatitis B - epidemiology - rehabilitation
Hepatitis C - epidemiology - rehabilitation
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Life Style
Male
Mental Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology
Middle Aged
Norway
Rehabilitation, Vocational - statistics & numerical data
Skin Diseases, Infectious - diagnosis - epidemiology
Social Environment
Substance Abuse, Intravenous - epidemiology - rehabilitation
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
The aim of the study was to investigate present and past morbidity in drug addicts, 25 years after hospitalisation for acute hepatitis B or hepatitis nonA-nonB. The hospital records for 214 consecutively admitted patients were analysed, and a follow-up study on 66 of the 144 patients still alive was performed. At follow-up, 1 of 54 (1.8%) hepatitis B patients was still HBsAg positive. Twelve patients originally diagnosed as hepatitis nonA-nonB were all among 54 found to be anti-hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) positive, and the total anti-HCV prevalence was 81.8%. Twelve (22.2%) of the HCV cases were unknown before the follow-up examination. Four (6.1%) participants were anti-human immunodeficiency virus positive, only 1 was on antiretroviral therapy, and none had developed AIDS. Other chronic somatic diseases were a minor problem, whereas drug users reported skin infections as a frequent complication. Forty-three patients (65%) had abandoned addictive drugs since the hospital stay. Serious mental disorders were reported by 19 patients (28.8%), and 17 (25.8%) regarded themselves as present (9) and former (8) compulsive alcohol drinkers. A large proportion of the participants were granted disability pension (39%), a majority because of psychiatric disorders, drug and alcohol abuse.
PubMed ID
12644734 View in PubMed
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Abuse liability of buprenorphine-naloxone tablets in untreated IV drug users.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature166939
Source
Drug Alcohol Depend. 2007 Apr 17;88(1):75-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-17-2007
Author
Hannu Alho
David Sinclair
Erkki Vuori
Antti Holopainen
Author Affiliation
National Public Health Institute, Department of Mental Health and Alcohol Research, Helsinki, Finland. hannu.alho@ktl.fi
Source
Drug Alcohol Depend. 2007 Apr 17;88(1):75-8
Date
Apr-17-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Analgesics, Opioid - administration & dosage
Buprenorphine - administration & dosage - economics
Drug Combinations
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Naloxone - administration & dosage - economics
Narcotic Antagonists - administration & dosage
Opioid-Related Disorders - epidemiology
Self Medication
Substance Abuse, Intravenous - economics - epidemiology
Abstract
Buprenorphine (Subutex) is widely abused in Finland. A combination of buprenorphine plus naloxone (Suboxone) has been available since late 2004, permitting a comparison of the abuse of the two products among untreated intravenous (IV) users. A survey was distributed to attendees at a Helsinki needle exchange program over 2-weeks in April, 2005, At least 30% were returned anonymously. Survey variables included: years of prior IV opioid abuse, years of buprenorphine abuse, frequency, dosage, route of administration and reasons for use, concomitant IV abuse of other substances and amount paid on the street for both buprenorphine and buprenorphine+naloxone. Buprenorphine was the most frequently used IV drug for 73% of the respondents. More than 75% said they used IV buprenorphine to self-treat addiction or withdrawal. Most (68%) had tried the buprenorphine+naloxone combination IV, but 80% said they had a "bad" experience. Its street price was less than half that of buprenorphine alone. The buprenorphine+naloxone combination appears to be a feasible tool, along with easier access to addiction treatment, for decreasing IV abuse of buprenorphine.
PubMed ID
17055191 View in PubMed
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[Acceptability of harm reduction interventions: contributions of members of the population to the debate about public health ethics].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature152246
Source
Can J Public Health. 2009 Jan-Feb;100(1):24-8
Publication Type
Article
Author
Eve Dubé
Raymond Massé
Lina Noël
Author Affiliation
Institut national de santé publique du Québec, Québec. eve.dube@ssss.gouv.qc.ca
Source
Can J Public Health. 2009 Jan-Feb;100(1):24-8
Language
French
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Attitude to Health
Drug Users - psychology
Female
Government Programs - ethics
Harm Reduction - ethics
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Male
Middle Aged
Needle-Exchange Programs - ethics
Public Health - ethics
Public Opinion
Quebec
Social Control Policies - ethics
Substance Abuse, Intravenous - microbiology
Young Adult
Abstract
To explore convergence and divergence in ethical stances of public health and of members of the population regarding acceptability of harm reduction interventions, in particular needle exchange programs.
Forty-nine semi-structured interviews were conducted with French-speaking residents of Quebec City. Content analysis was done to explore the views of the respondents with regard to injection drug users (IDUs) and interventions addressed to them, as well as Quebec policies on harm reduction.
Four main categories of social representations about IDUs have emerged from the discourses of the respondents. IDU were represented as: suffering from a disease (n = 17); victim of a situation that they could not control (n = 14); having chosen to use drugs (n = 12); or delinquent people (n = 6). Those social representations were associated with different ethical stances regarding acceptability of harm reduction interventions. Main divergences between respondents' ethical positions on harm reduction and public health discourses were related to the value of tolerance and its limits.
The Quebec City population interviewed in this study had a high level of tolerance regarding needle distribution to drug addicts. Applied ethics could be a useful way to understand citizens' interpretation of public health interventions.
PubMed ID
19263971 View in PubMed
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Access to harm reduction services in Atlantic Canada: implications for non-urban residents who inject drugs.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature130910
Source
Health Place. 2012 Mar;18(2):152-62
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2012
Author
J. Parker
L. Jackson
M. Dykeman
J. Gahagan
J. Karabanow
Author Affiliation
School of Health and Human Performance, Dalhousie University, 6230 South St., Halifax, Canada. parkerj@dal.ca
Source
Health Place. 2012 Mar;18(2):152-62
Date
Mar-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Atlantic Ocean
Canada
Female
Harm Reduction
Health Services Accessibility
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Male
Needle-Exchange Programs
Rural Population
Substance Abuse, Intravenous
Abstract
Awareness of drug use in rural communities and small towns has been growing, but we know relatively little about the challenges injection drug users (IDUs) living in such places face in accessing harm reduction services. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 115 IDUs in urban and non-urban areas of Atlantic Canada. In many instances, geographic distance to a needle exchange program (NEP) meant that individuals living outside of urban areas and who were not provided services through an NEP's outreach program were at a disadvantage in terms of an array of supports offered through many NEPs. These include access to free clean injecting equipment, and such ancillary services as clothing, food, referrals, information and social support. The integration of the services and approaches provided by NEPs into mainstream health services in non-urban places is one possible model for improving such access.
PubMed ID
21955638 View in PubMed
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Access to health and social services for IDU: the impact of a medically supervised injection facility.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature149722
Source
Drug Alcohol Rev. 2009 Jul;28(4):341-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2009
Author
Will Small
Natasha Van Borek
Nadia Fairbairn
Evan Wood
Thomas Kerr
Author Affiliation
British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, St. Paul's Hospital, Vancouver, Canada.
Source
Drug Alcohol Rev. 2009 Jul;28(4):341-6
Date
Jul-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
British Columbia
Data Collection
Female
Health Promotion - methods
Health Services Accessibility - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Needle-Exchange Programs - organization & administration
Patient Acceptance of Health Care
Referral and Consultation - statistics & numerical data
Substance Abuse Treatment Centers - organization & administration
Substance Abuse, Intravenous - psychology
Young Adult
Abstract
Injection drug users (IDU) often experience barriers to conventional health-care services, and consequently might rely on acute and emergency services. This study sought to investigate IDU perspectives regarding the impact of supervised injection facility (SIF) use on access to health-care services.
Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 50 Vancouver-based IDU participating in the Scientific Evaluation of Supervised Injecting cohort. Audio-recorded interviews elicited IDU perspectives regarding the impact of SIF use on access to health and social services. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and a thematic analysis was conducted.
Fifty IDU, including 21 women, participated in this study. IDU narratives indicate that the SIF serves to facilitate access to health care by providing much-needed care on-site and connects IDU to external services through referrals. Participants' perspectives suggest that the SIF has facilitated increased uptake of health and social services among IDU.
Although challenges related to access to care remain in many settings, SIF have potential to promote health by facilitating enhanced access to health-care and social services through a model of care that is accessible to high-risk IDU.
PubMed ID
19594786 View in PubMed
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Access to sterile injecting equipment is more important than awareness of HCV status for injection risk behaviors among drug users.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature152406
Source
Subst Use Misuse. 2009;44(4):548-68
Publication Type
Article
Date
2009
Author
Joseph Cox
Carole Morissette
Prithwish De
Claude Tremblay
Robert Allard
Lisa Graves
Randolph Stephenson
Elise Roy
Author Affiliation
Direction de Santé publique, Agence de la Santé et des services Sociaux de Montreal, Montreal, Canada. jcox@santepub-mtl.qc.ca
Source
Subst Use Misuse. 2009;44(4):548-68
Date
2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Hepatitis C - complications - diagnosis - prevention & control - psychology
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Logistic Models
Male
Methadone
Middle Aged
Needle-Exchange Programs
Quebec
Risk-Taking
Social Support
Substance Abuse, Intravenous - psychology - virology
Abstract
Awareness of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection status is expected to influence risk behaviors. In 2004-2005, injection drug users (IDUs) recruited from syringe exchange programs (SEPs) and methadone clinics in Montreal, Canada, were interviewed on drug use behaviors (past 6 months) and HCV testing. Subjects (n = 230) were classified as low/intermediate risk (20.4% borrowed drug preparation equipment only) and high risk (19.6% borrowed syringes), and 54.5% reported being HCV positive. Logistic regression modeling showed that compared to no risk (60% borrowed nothing), low/intermediate risk was associated with fewer noninjecting social network members, poor physical health, and problems obtaining sterile injecting equipment. High risk was associated with all of these factors except social networks. HCV status was not associated with any level of risk. Improved access to sterile injecting equipment may be more important than knowledge of HCV status in reducing injection risks among this IDU population. The study limitations are noted and recommendations discussed.
Notes
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PubMed ID
19242863 View in PubMed
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1092 records – page 1 of 110.