The Swedish Navy has operated submarines equipped with air independent propulsion for two decades. This type of submarine can stay submerged for periods far longer than other non-nuclear submarines are capable of. The air quality during longer periods of submersion has so far not been thoroughly investigated. This study presents results for a number of air quality parameters obtained during more than one week of continuous submerged operation. The measured parameters are pressure, temperature, relative humidity, oxygen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter and microbiological contaminants. The measurements of airborne particles demonstrate that air pollutants typically occur at a low baseline level due to high air exchange rates and efficient air-cleaning devices. However, short-lived peaks with comparatively high concentrations occur, several of the sources for these have been identified. The concentrations of the pollutants measured in this study do not indicate a build-up of hazardous compounds during eight days of submersion. It is reasonable to assume that a substantial build-up of the investigated contaminants is not likely if the submersion period is prolonged several times, which is the case for modern submarines equipped with air independent propulsion.
The authors offer a way of estimation of safety modes of decompression, based on definition of intensity of venous gas embolism (VGE) at each decompression and account of probability of illness of divers in series of tests. Intensity of VGE was determined with the help of ultrasonic gas bubbles Doppler radar. Comparative safety of standard modes of decompression of divers of the Navy was estimated, and also the modes, designed in accordance with mathematical model of decompression, offered by I. A. Voitsekhovich (1990), were done. The results testify, that use of ultrasonic radar for estimation of intensity of VGE at decompression and account of average and maximum probability of decompression illness in series of tests of modes permit to receive the comparative characteristic of safety of modes at small number of decompressions.
The article presents the results of researches of 156 submariners of the first age-related group from crews of a-submarine during first several days on rest and in the end of the rest? Which was allowed after a long (2,5 months and more) autonomous float. Researches showed the effectiveness of reductive rest for the crews of a-submarines in conditions of Kolskoye Zapolyarye. Defined that in the 1st age-lated group ought to attend 1,9% of submariners with signs of non-adaptation and overpressure of physiological systems of organism. It's confirmed that good exponents of health condition could be attained by overpressure of functional systems. Authors propose to examine the submariner's organism functions by different diagnostics axis.
Proteins of biological samples in the process of storage are subject to microbe contamination as well as the destruction by their own lipoprotein lipases. It is established that N-thymol compounds of formulas 52 and 82 stabilize blood serum samples of donors and preserve the content of total protein in them unchanged for 7, 15 and 40 days, respectively. The obtained stabilizers can be used when studying protein metabolism in the organism of cosmonauts performing long-term space flight, depots of nuclear submarines, participants of long-term Alpine, desert, polar and other expeditions.
A highly qualified physician, an outstanding leader, a scientist Dmitry Zuikhin (1924-1988) was directly involved into establishment of a system of medical support for submariners in the sea and on shore, he proved the necessity of forces and means for the medical service fleet. He was a pioneer in this challenging and new field of naval medicine. His energy, perseverance and determination helped to establish in the early 1960 a system of medical support for nuclear submarines personnel, which was subsequently implemented in all associations and connections of nuclear submarines of the Northern and Pacific fleets.
Authors came to conclusions that during the pre-deployment period submarine personnel are stressed out. During this period submarine personnel .usually resupply, conduct maintenance and other monitoring-and-checkout measures, which leads to functional stress. Authors came to conclusion that it is necessary to use simple and easy, but at the same time informative methods for early diagnosis of worsen functional health status. One of these methods is evaluation of indicators of cardiovascular system. This method is a base for functional health status prophylaxis.
Subject of the study was spreading of mycoses in the troops based on the Kola Peninsula. Examined were the military serving on atomic submarines, maintenance crews of deactivated atomic submarines awaiting disposal, and coastal units. Spreading of skin lesions among the submariners was not same as among the coastal military. Signs of clinical mycoses were observed in 41.2% of submariners of the active unit, in 66.9% of the maintenance crews, and in 38.1% of the coastal military. Infection agents were fungi g. Candida (albicans, guilliermondii, krusei, pseudotropicalis), Epidermophytia plicarum, Ptyriasis versicolor, Trichophyton interdigitale. Among the fighters on active submarines, 53.8% of the clinical observations were accounted for onychomycosis and foot skin lesions and 38.5%--for erythema, maceration and suppuration. Among the maintenance crews 51.8% of the observations were accounted for onychomycosis and foot skin lesions and maceration; hyperkeratosis and fissures prevailed in the coastal military (31.1%). For submariners most common were Candida albicans (80.7%) and guilliermondii (11.6%), and Trichophyton interdigitale (7.7%). In the maintenance crew those were Candida albicans (84.1%) and guilliermondii (11.6%) and in the coastal military, Candida albicans (70.6%), guilliermondii (11.8%) and krusei (14.7%).
The article presents an observe of general questions of peculiarities of military-professional activity of submarine staff These questions are defining value in ideology of medical supply of submarine troops of NAVY in now-days conditions. The article also presents the statistics of morbidity in long termed sails for last forty years, it's dynamics by different categories of sail staff, on different stages of combat training activity in dependence of perioditation of work cycle of submarine staff The authors have examined modern condition of medical supply of submarines; have presented statistics of quality indexes of health of submarine staff The authors have formed main problems of medical supply of submarines and have proposed ways of their solving on modern stage.