The 2 Ã? 2 model of perfectionism posits that the 4 within-person combinations of self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism (i.e., pure SOP, mixed perfectionism, pure SPP, and nonperfectionism) can be distinctively associated with psychological adjustment. This study examined whether the relationship between the 4 subtypes of perfectionism proposed in the 2 Ã? 2 model (Gaudreau & Thompson, 2010) and academic outcomes (i.e., academic satisfaction and grade-point average [GPA]) differed across 2 sociocultural groups: Asian Canadians and European Canadians. A sample of 697 undergraduate students (23% Asian Canadians) completed self-report measures of dispositional perfectionism, academic satisfaction, and GPA. Results replicated most of the 2 Ã? 2 model's hypotheses on ratings of GPA, thus supporting that nonperfectionism was associated with lower GPA than pure SOP (Hypothesis 1a) but with higher GPA than pure SPP (Hypothesis 2). Results also showed that mixed perfectionism was related to higher GPA than pure SPP (Hypothesis 3) but to similar levels as pure SOP, thus disproving Hypothesis 4. Furthermore, results provided evidence for cross-cultural differences in academic satisfaction. While all 4 hypotheses were supported among European Canadians, only Hypotheses 1a and 3 were supported among Asian Canadians. Future lines of research are discussed in light of the importance of acknowledging the role of culture when studying the influence of dispositional perfectionism on academic outcomes.
Information is sparse concerning the incidence and prognosis of headache in children from the general population, especially of tension-type headache. In this study, headache diagnoses and symptoms were reassessed in 122 out of 130 schoolchildren after 3 years. Nearly 80% of those with headache at first evaluation still reported headache at follow-up. Although the likelihood of experiencing the same headache diagnosis and symptoms was high, about one-fifth of children with tension-type headache developed migraine and vice versa. Female gender predicted migraine and frequent headache episodes predicted overall headache at follow-up. The estimated average annual incidence was 81 and 65 per 1000 children, for tension-type headache and migraine, respectively. We conclude that there is a considerable risk of developing and maintaining headache during childhood. Headache diagnoses should be reassessed regularly and treatment adjusted. Girls and children with frequent headache have a poorer prognosis and therefore intervention is particularly important in these groups.
The purpose of the study was to describe the sense of coherence (SOC) of three groups of Finnish polytechnic students (n=287) at the beginning of their studies and to follow it during a period of 3 year amongst the health care students (n=63) of this group. The associations between SOC and smoking, drinking and physical exercise were also studied. The data were collected with a questionnaire which included Antonovsky's (Adv. Nurs. Sci. 1(1983)37) SOC scale. Data analysis was with SPSS statistical software. The students showed a strong sense of coherence at the beginning of their studies. Physical activity was related to the strength of SOC, but no association was found with smoking and drinking. Health care students showed a stronger SOC at the beginning of their studies than the two other groups. During the follow-up focused on the health care students, SOC weakened in 6%, remained unchanged in 65% and strengthened in 32% of the participants. Smoking, drinking and physical exercise showed no association with these changes. Future research should be focused on identifying factors that are related to SOC during education.
The aim of this retrospective study was to record patients' satisfaction with fixed metal ceramic bridges and crowns made by dental students and to evaluate the functioning and condition of the bridges and crowns clinically and radiologically. Out of the 60 patients treated at the Institute of Dentistry during 1984-85, 30 patients attended the follow-up examination (16 women, mean age 39, range 23-62 years and 14 men, mean age 44, range 26-65 years). The anamnestic data and data regarding treatment procedures were collected from the patient files. The patients had been supplied with 41 crowns and 24 bridges (mean 3.9 units, range 3-6 units), which included 61 abutments and 33 pontics or cantilever extensions (abutment/pontic ratio 1.85: 1). Marginal fidelity was unsatisfactory in 13% of the crowns and bridges and gingival bleeding and pockets of 4-6 mm were noted in 27% and 12% of cases, respectively. None of the subjects had caries in the abutments.
The study aimed to explore changes in the prevalence of psychological distress and co-occurring psychological symptoms among 19-34 years old Finnish university students between the years 2000 and 2012.
The prevalence of perceived frequent psychological symptoms was compared in four nationwide cross-sectional student health surveys with random samples (N=11,502) in the following years: 2000 (N=3,174), 2004 (N=3,153), 2008 (N=2,750), and 2012 (N=2,425).
In the time phase from 2000 to 2012, the overall psychological distress (12-item General Health Questionnaire, GHQ-12) increased from 22% to 28%, while there was also an increase in the frequently experienced psychological symptoms (depressiveness from 13% to 15%, anxiety from 8% to 13%, concentration problems from 12% to 18%, and psychological tension from 13% to 18% with a peak prevalence observed in 2008). The co-occurrence of different psychological symptoms increased as well. Psychological distress was more common in females and in older students.
The findings suggest an increasing trend of frequent psychological distress among Finnish university students over the years from 2000 to 2012, with the peak prevalence occurring in 2008, which may reflect the growing multifaceted environmental demands.
Nursing care of families continues to be a challenge within complex and demanding health-care systems. Educational strategies to bridge the theory-practice gap, connecting classroom learning with clinical experiences in undergraduate nursing education, enable students to develop the skills required to form meaningful partnerships with families. This article describes how undergraduate nursing students complete a 15-Minute Family Interview in a clinical practice setting, and document the interview process in a reflective major paper. Students integrate research and theory and identify ways to improve the care of families in the clinical setting while building communication skills and confidence in interacting with families in everyday practice. The implementation of the assignment and the evaluation of the process, including quotes from 10 student papers and 2 clinical faculty members, are discussed. Implications for education and ongoing research are offered.
25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) deficiency is associated with compromised bone mineralisation, fatigue, suppressed immune function and unsatisfactory skeletal muscle recovery. We investigated the risk of 25(OH)D insufficiency or deficiency in endurance athletes compared to sedentary non-athletes living at 64° north.
University student-athletes (TS) and sedentary students (SS) volunteered to participate in this study. TS engaged in regular exercise while SS exercised no more than 20 minutes/week. Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET) scores for participants were determined. Vitamin D intake was assessed using the National Cancer Institute's 24-hour food recall (ASA24). Fasting plasma 25(OH)D levels were quantified via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
TS reported higher activity levels than SS as assessed with MET-minutes/week and ranking of physical activity levels (p
Cites: Chem Biol. 2014 Mar 20;21(3):319-29 PMID 24529992
Research in the context of the dental school has traditionally been focused on institutional/faculty accomplishments and generating new knowledge to benefit the profession. Only recently have significant efforts been made to expand the overall research programming into the formal dental curriculum, to provide students with a baseline exposure to the research and critical thinking processes, encourage evidence-based decision-making, and stimulate interest in academic/research careers. Various approaches to curriculum reform and the establishment of multiple levels of student research opportunities are now part of the educational fabric of many dental schools worldwide. Many of the preliminary reports regarding the success and vitality of these programs have used outcomes measures and metrics that emphasize cultural changes within institutions, student research productivity, and student career preferences after graduation. However, there have not been any reports from long-standing programs (a minimum of 25 years of cumulative data) that describe dental school graduates who have had the benefit of research/training experiences during their dental education. The University of Manitoba Faculty of Dentistry initiated a BSc Dent program in 1980 that awarded a formal degree for significant research experiences taking place within the laboratories of the Faculty-based researchers and has continued to develop and expand this program. The success of the program has been demonstrated by the continued and increasing demands for entry, the academic achievements of the graduates, and the numbers of graduates who have completed advanced education/training programs or returned to the Faculty as instructors. Analysis of our long-term data validates many recent hypotheses and short-term observations regarding the benefits of dental student research programs. This information may be useful in the design and implementation of dental student research programs at other dental schools.
Canada does not have enough aboriginal nurses and aboriginal nursing faculty. Consequently, there is an inadequate number of nurses to meet both on- and off-reserve and community health care staffing needs. In 2002, Health Canada asked the Canadian Association of University Schools of Nursing to facilitate a national task force that would examine aboriginal nursing in Canada. The task force engaged in an extensive literature review, conducted a national survey of nursing programs, and explored recruitment and retention strategies. In 2007, the association prepared an update on the current status. In this article, the authors review the progress made during the intervening five years in the recruitment, retention and education of aboriginal nursing students.