National dietary guidelines are intended to promote primary prevention of lifestyle-related diseases, but little is known about their effectiveness in prevention of stroke.
We used the Danish cohort Diet, Cancer and Health (n = 57 053) to investigate whether adherence to the Danish food-based dietary guidelines was associated with risk of stroke. Adherence was assessed by the Danish Dietary Guidelines Index, score 0 [no adherence] to 6 [complete adherence]. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for stroke and subtypes of stroke in men and women separately.
Incident stroke was determined in 1357 men and 900 women during follow-up (median 12.5 years and 13.0 years, respectively). A higher Danish Dietary Guidelines Index score was inversely associated with total stroke in men but not in women. In men, a high Index score (=4) was also inversely associated with total ischemic stroke (hazard ratio 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.65-0.86), large-artery atherosclerosis (hazard ratio 0.63, 95% confidence interval 0.44-0.92) and small artery occlusion (hazard ratio 0.68, 95% confidence interval 0.54-0.84) compared to a low Index score (
An increasing number of reports have linked infections to atherosclerosis and thrombosis. Thus, use of antibiotics may lower the risk of developing cerebrovascular disease. We investigated whether antibiotic use is associated with the risk of stroke in elderly individuals treated for hypertension.
A cohort of 29 937 elderly subjects initiating antihypertensive therapy between 1982 and 1995 was formed from the Quebec healthcare insurance database. A nested case-control design was used in which each subject hospitalized with a primary discharge diagnosis of stroke between 1987 and 1995 was matched on calendar time to 5 randomly selected controls from the cohort. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios of stroke after adjustment for predisposing factors.
We identified 1888 cases and 9440 controls. The overall adjusted odds ratio for current antibiotic use was 0.80 (95% confidence interval, 0.63 to 1.01), and that for recent use was 0.81 (95% confidence interval, 0.70 to 0.94). Penicillin was the only individual antibiotic class that showed a protective association across different time windows. No significant association was found between stroke risk and the use of fluoroquinolones, macrolides, tetracyclines, or cephalosporins.
Although no clear, consistent associations between overall antibiotic use and cerebrovascular disease could be found, an intriguing association between penicillin use and stroke should be explored further.
To examine the associations between antihypertensive treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEis) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), ß-blockers, diuretics, or calcium-antagonists, and risk of atrial fibrillation. We examined these associations using the entire Danish population from 1995 through 2010.
Excluding medication used in atrial fibrillation, we matched individuals on ACEi monotherapy 1:1 with individuals on ß-blocker (n = 48 658), diuretic (n = 69 630), calcium-antagonist (n = 57 646), and ARB monotherapy (n = 20 158). Likewise, individuals on ARB monotherapy were matched 1:1 with individuals on ß-blocker (n = 20 566), diuretic (n = 20 832), calcium-antagonist (n = 20 232), and ACEi monotherapy (n = 20 158). All were free of atrial fibrillation and of predisposing diseases like heart failure, ischaemic heart disease, diabetes mellitus, and hyperthyroidism at baseline and none received any other antihypertensive medication. We studied risk of atrial fibrillation, and used risk of stroke, influenced by lowering blood pressure rather than renin-angiotensin system blockade per se, as an indicator of the importance of blood pressure lowering per se. Hazard ratios of atrial fibrillation for ACEi and ARB monotherapy were 0.12 (95% CI: 0.10-0.15) and 0.10 (0.07-0.14) compared with ß-blocker, 0.51 (0.44-0.59) and 0.43 (0.32-0.58) compared with diuretic, and 0.97 (0.81-1.16) and 0.78 (0.56-1.08) compared with calcium-antagonist monotherapy. Risk of stroke did not differ among the five antihypertensive medications.
Use of ACEis and ARBs compared with ß-blockers and diuretics associates with a reduced risk of atrial fibrillation, but not stroke, within the limitations of a retrospective study reporting associations. This suggests that controlling activation of the renin-angiotensin system in addition to controlling blood pressure is associated with a reduced risk of atrial fibrillation.
Comment In: Eur Heart J. 2014 May;35(18):1169-7124566798
We studied whether aspirin resistance, defined as failure of suppression of thromboxane generation, increases the risk of cardiovascular events in a high-risk population.
Baseline urine samples were obtained from 5529 Canadian patients enrolled in the Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) Study. Using a nested case-control design, we measured urinary 11-dehydro thromboxane B2 levels, a marker of in vivo thromboxane generation, in 488 cases treated with aspirin who had myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death during 5 years of follow-up and in 488 sex- and age-matched control subjects also receiving aspirin who did not have an event. After adjustment for baseline differences, the odds for the composite outcome of myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death increased with each increasing quartile of 11-dehydro thromboxane B2, with patients in the upper quartile having a 1.8-times-higher risk than those in the lower quartile (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2 to 2.7; P=0.009). Those in the upper quartile had a 2-times-higher risk of myocardial infarction (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.2 to 3.4; P=0.006) and a 3.5-times-higher risk of cardiovascular death (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.7 to 7.4; P
Our aim was examine the association between black tea consumption and risk of total stroke and stroke types in a prospective study.
A total of 74,961 Swedish women and men who were free of cardiovascular disease and cancer at baseline in 1997 were followed up through December 2008. Tea consumption was assessed with a questionnaire at baseline. Stroke cases were ascertained from the Swedish Hospital Discharge Registry.
During a mean follow-up of 10.2 years, we ascertained 4089 cases of first stroke, including 3159 cerebral infarctions, 435 intracerebral hemorrhages, 148 subarachnoid hemorrhages, and 347 unspecified strokes. After adjustment for other risk factors, high tea consumption was associated with a significantly lower risk of total stroke; however, there was no dose-response relation (P for trend = .36). Compared with no tea consumption, the multivariable relative risk for four or more cups per day (median, 5) was 0.79 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.62-0.998). The corresponding relative risks were 0.80 (95% CI, 0.61-1.04) for cerebral infarction and 0.68 (95% CI, 0.35-1.30) for hemorrhagic stroke.
These findings suggest that daily consumption of four or more cups of black tea is inversely associated with risk of stroke.
OBJECTIVE: To analyse how hospital factors influence the use of oral anticoagulants (OAC) in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients and address the clinical consequences of hospital variation in OAC use. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: By linkage of nationwide Danish administrative registers we conducted an observational study including all patients with a first-time hospitalization for AF between 1995 and 2004 as well as prescription claims for OAC. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate hospital factors associated with prescription of OAC therapy. Cox proportional-hazard models were used to estimate the risk of re-hospitalization for thromboembolism and haemorrhagic stroke with respect to discharge from a low, intermediate, or high OAC use hospital. RESULTS: Overall 40,133 (37%) out of 108,504 patients received OAC; ranging from 17% to 50% between the hospitals with the lowest and highest OAC use, respectively. Cardiology departments had the highest use of OAC, but neither tertiary university hospitals nor high volume hospitals had higher OAC use than local community hospitals and low volume hospitals. Risk of a thromboembolic event was significantly increased amongst patients from hospitals with a low OAC use (hazard ratio 1.16, confidence interval 1.10-1.22). Notably, higher OAC use was not associated with a higher risk of haemorrhagic stroke. CONCLUSION: In Denmark between 1995 and 2004, there was a major hospital variation in AF patients receiving OAC, and consequently, more thromboembolic events were observed amongst patients from low OAC use hospitals. Our study emphasizes the need for a continued vigilance on implementation of international AF management guidelines.
To study the effectiveness and safety of the non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (novel oral anticoagulants, NOACs) dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban compared with warfarin in anticoagulant naïve patients with atrial fibrillation.
Observational nationwide cohort study.
Three Danish nationwide databases, August 2011 to October 2015.
61?678 patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation who were naïve to oral anticoagulants and had no previous indication for valvular atrial fibrillation or venous thromboembolism. The study population was distributed according to treatment type: warfarin (n=35?436, 57%), dabigatran 150 mg (n=12?701, 21%), rivaroxaban 20 mg (n=7192, 12%), and apixaban 5 mg (n=6349, 10%).
Effectiveness outcomes defined a priori were ischaemic stroke; a composite of ischaemic stroke or systemic embolism; death; and a composite of ischaemic stroke, systemic embolism, or death. Safety outcomes were any bleeding, intracranial bleeding, and major bleeding.
When the analysis was restricted to ischaemic stroke, NOACs were not significantly different from warfarin. During one year follow-up, rivaroxaban was associated with lower annual rates of ischaemic stroke or systemic embolism (3.0% v 3.3%, respectively) compared with warfarin: hazard ratio 0.83 (95% confidence interval 0.69 to 0.99). The hazard ratios for dabigatran and apixaban (2.8% and 4.9% annually, respectively) were non-significant compared with warfarin. The annual risk of death was significantly lower with apixaban (5.2%) and dabigatran (2.7%) (0.65, 0.56 to 0.75 and 0.63, 0.48 to 0.82, respectively) compared with warfarin (8.5%), but not with rivaroxaban (7.7%). For the combined endpoint of any bleeding, annual rates for apixaban (3.3%) and dabigatran (2.4%) were significantly lower than for warfarin (5.0%) (0.62, 0.51 to 0.74). Warfarin and rivaroxaban had comparable annual bleeding rates (5.3%).
All NOACs seem to be safe and effective alternatives to warfarin in a routine care setting. No significant difference was found between NOACs and warfarin for ischaemic stroke. The risks of death, any bleeding, or major bleeding were significantly lower for apixaban and dabigatran compared with warfarin.
Cites: Europace. 2012 Oct;14(10):1385-41322923145
Cites: Stroke. 2015 Sep;46(9):2555-6126304863
Cites: Thromb Haemost. 2014 May 5;111(5):789-9724500243
Cites: Ann Intern Med. 2007 Jun 19;146(12):857-6717577005
Cites: J Intern Med. 2015 Jul;278(1):1-1825758241
Cites: N Engl J Med. 2013 Nov 28;369(22):2093-10424251359
Cites: Scand J Public Health. 2011 Jul;39(7 Suppl):22-521775345
Cites: Am Heart J. 2010 Oct;160(4):635-4120934556
Cites: Stat Med. 1999 Mar 30;18(6):695-70610204198
In patients with ischemic stroke of non-cardioembolic origin, acetylsalicylic acid, clopidogrel, or a combination of acetylsalicylic acid and dipyridamole are recommended for the prevention of a recurrent stroke. The purpose of this study was to examine the risk of bleeding or recurrent stroke associated with these three treatments.
Patients who were discharged with first-time ischemic stroke from 2007-2010, with no history of atrial fibrillation were identified from Danish nationwide registries. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 1-year risks of recurrent ischemic stroke and bleeding were calculated for each antiplatelet regimen.
Among patients discharged after first-time ischemic stroke, 3043 patients were treated with acetylsalicylic acid, 12,295 with a combination of acetylsalicylic acid and dipyridamole, and 3885 with clopidogrel. Adjusted HRs for clopidogrel versus the combination of acetylsalicylic acid and dipyridamole were 1.02 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.89-1.17) for ischemic stroke and 1.06 (95% CI: 0.83-1.35) for bleeding. Adjusted HRs for acetylsalicylic acid versus the combination of acetylsalicylic acid and dipyridamole were 1.48 (95% CI: 1.31-1.67) for stroke and 1.47 (95% CI: 1.18-1.82) for bleeding. Clopidogrel versus acetylsalicylic acid yielded HRs of 0.69 (95% CI: 0.59-0.81) and 0.72 (95% CI: 0.55-0.96) for stroke and bleeding, respectively. The 1-year predicted risks associated with acetylsalicylic acid, the combination of acetylsalicylic acid and dipyridamole, and clopidogrel were 11.1 (95% CI: 10.2-12.2), 7.7 (95% CI: 7.3-8.3), and 8.0 (95% CI: 6.9-8.7) for ischemic stroke, respectively; while, the risks for bleeding were 3.4 (95% CI: 2.8-3.9), 2.4 (95% CI: 2.1-2.7), and 2.4 (95% CI: 1.9-2.9), respectively.
Clopidogrel and the combination of acetylsalicylic acid and dipyridamole were associated with similar risks for recurrent ischemic stroke and bleeding; whereas acetylsalicylic acid was associated with higher risks for both ischemic stroke and bleeding. The latter finding may partially be explained by selection bias.
Cites: Circulation. 2007 Nov 6;116(19):2157-6417967776