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Adherence to national food-based dietary guidelines and incidence of stroke: A cohort study of Danish men and women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299135
Source
PLoS One. 2018; 13(10):e0206242
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
2018
Author
Sine Hammer Hansen
Kim Overvad
Camilla Plambeck Hansen
Christina Catherine Dahm
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
Source
PLoS One. 2018; 13(10):e0206242
Date
2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Cohort Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Diet Surveys - methods - statistics & numerical data
Female
Food
Guideline Adherence
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Nutrition Policy
Proportional Hazards Models
Risk factors
Stroke - epidemiology - prevention & control
Abstract
National dietary guidelines are intended to promote primary prevention of lifestyle-related diseases, but little is known about their effectiveness in prevention of stroke.
We used the Danish cohort Diet, Cancer and Health (n = 57 053) to investigate whether adherence to the Danish food-based dietary guidelines was associated with risk of stroke. Adherence was assessed by the Danish Dietary Guidelines Index, score 0 [no adherence] to 6 [complete adherence]. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for stroke and subtypes of stroke in men and women separately.
Incident stroke was determined in 1357 men and 900 women during follow-up (median 12.5 years and 13.0 years, respectively). A higher Danish Dietary Guidelines Index score was inversely associated with total stroke in men but not in women. In men, a high Index score (=4) was also inversely associated with total ischemic stroke (hazard ratio 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.65-0.86), large-artery atherosclerosis (hazard ratio 0.63, 95% confidence interval 0.44-0.92) and small artery occlusion (hazard ratio 0.68, 95% confidence interval 0.54-0.84) compared to a low Index score (
PubMed ID
30356304 View in PubMed
Less detail

Antibiotics in primary prevention of stroke in the elderly.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature184155
Source
Stroke. 2003 Sep;34(9):e163-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2003
Author
Paul Brassard
Chantal Bourgault
James Brophy
Abbas Kezouh
Samy Suissa
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Canada. paul.brassard@clinepi.mcgill.ca
Source
Stroke. 2003 Sep;34(9):e163-6
Date
Sep-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Anti-Bacterial Agents - therapeutic use
Antihypertensive Agents - therapeutic use
Case-Control Studies
Causality
Cohort Studies
Comorbidity
Female
Humans
Hypertension - drug therapy - epidemiology
Logistic Models
Male
Odds Ratio
Penicillins - therapeutic use
Primary prevention - methods
Quebec - epidemiology
Retrospective Studies
Risk assessment
Stroke - epidemiology - prevention & control
Abstract
An increasing number of reports have linked infections to atherosclerosis and thrombosis. Thus, use of antibiotics may lower the risk of developing cerebrovascular disease. We investigated whether antibiotic use is associated with the risk of stroke in elderly individuals treated for hypertension.
A cohort of 29 937 elderly subjects initiating antihypertensive therapy between 1982 and 1995 was formed from the Quebec healthcare insurance database. A nested case-control design was used in which each subject hospitalized with a primary discharge diagnosis of stroke between 1987 and 1995 was matched on calendar time to 5 randomly selected controls from the cohort. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios of stroke after adjustment for predisposing factors.
We identified 1888 cases and 9440 controls. The overall adjusted odds ratio for current antibiotic use was 0.80 (95% confidence interval, 0.63 to 1.01), and that for recent use was 0.81 (95% confidence interval, 0.70 to 0.94). Penicillin was the only individual antibiotic class that showed a protective association across different time windows. No significant association was found between stroke risk and the use of fluoroquinolones, macrolides, tetracyclines, or cephalosporins.
Although no clear, consistent associations between overall antibiotic use and cerebrovascular disease could be found, an intriguing association between penicillin use and stroke should be explored further.
Notes
Comment In: Stroke. 2003 Sep;34(9):e166-712933976
PubMed ID
12907812 View in PubMed
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Antihypertensive treatment and risk of atrial fibrillation: a nationwide study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature259079
Source
Eur Heart J. 2014 May;35(18):1205-14
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2014
Author
Sarah C W Marott
Sune F Nielsen
Marianne Benn
Børge G Nordestgaard
Source
Eur Heart J. 2014 May;35(18):1205-14
Date
May-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adrenergic beta-Antagonists - therapeutic use
Aged
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists - therapeutic use
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors - therapeutic use
Antihypertensive Agents - therapeutic use
Atrial Fibrillation - epidemiology - prevention & control
Calcium Channel Blockers - therapeutic use
Denmark - epidemiology
Diuretics - therapeutic use
Female
Humans
Hypertension - drug therapy - epidemiology
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Stroke - epidemiology - prevention & control
Abstract
To examine the associations between antihypertensive treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEis) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), ß-blockers, diuretics, or calcium-antagonists, and risk of atrial fibrillation. We examined these associations using the entire Danish population from 1995 through 2010.
Excluding medication used in atrial fibrillation, we matched individuals on ACEi monotherapy 1:1 with individuals on ß-blocker (n = 48 658), diuretic (n = 69 630), calcium-antagonist (n = 57 646), and ARB monotherapy (n = 20 158). Likewise, individuals on ARB monotherapy were matched 1:1 with individuals on ß-blocker (n = 20 566), diuretic (n = 20 832), calcium-antagonist (n = 20 232), and ACEi monotherapy (n = 20 158). All were free of atrial fibrillation and of predisposing diseases like heart failure, ischaemic heart disease, diabetes mellitus, and hyperthyroidism at baseline and none received any other antihypertensive medication. We studied risk of atrial fibrillation, and used risk of stroke, influenced by lowering blood pressure rather than renin-angiotensin system blockade per se, as an indicator of the importance of blood pressure lowering per se. Hazard ratios of atrial fibrillation for ACEi and ARB monotherapy were 0.12 (95% CI: 0.10-0.15) and 0.10 (0.07-0.14) compared with ß-blocker, 0.51 (0.44-0.59) and 0.43 (0.32-0.58) compared with diuretic, and 0.97 (0.81-1.16) and 0.78 (0.56-1.08) compared with calcium-antagonist monotherapy. Risk of stroke did not differ among the five antihypertensive medications.
Use of ACEis and ARBs compared with ß-blockers and diuretics associates with a reduced risk of atrial fibrillation, but not stroke, within the limitations of a retrospective study reporting associations. This suggests that controlling activation of the renin-angiotensin system in addition to controlling blood pressure is associated with a reduced risk of atrial fibrillation.
Notes
Comment In: Eur Heart J. 2014 May;35(18):1169-7124566798
PubMed ID
24347316 View in PubMed
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Aspirin-resistant thromboxane biosynthesis and the risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death in patients at high risk for cardiovascular events.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature190662
Source
Circulation. 2002 Apr 9;105(14):1650-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-9-2002
Author
John W Eikelboom
Jack Hirsh
Jeffrey I Weitz
Marilyn Johnston
Qilong Yi
Salim Yusuf
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, University of Western Australia, Thrombosis and Haemophilia Unit, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, Australia. john.eikelboom@health.wa.gov.au
Source
Circulation. 2002 Apr 9;105(14):1650-5
Date
Apr-9-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors - therapeutic use
Aspirin - therapeutic use
Canada - epidemiology
Cardiovascular Diseases - drug therapy - epidemiology - metabolism
Case-Control Studies
Cohort Studies
Comorbidity
Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors - therapeutic use
Death, Sudden, Cardiac - epidemiology - prevention & control
Demography
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Myocardial Infarction - epidemiology - prevention & control
Odds Ratio
Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
Recurrence - prevention & control
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Stroke - epidemiology - prevention & control
Thromboxane B2 - analogs & derivatives - urine
Thromboxanes - biosynthesis - urine
Vitamin E - therapeutic use
Abstract
We studied whether aspirin resistance, defined as failure of suppression of thromboxane generation, increases the risk of cardiovascular events in a high-risk population.
Baseline urine samples were obtained from 5529 Canadian patients enrolled in the Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) Study. Using a nested case-control design, we measured urinary 11-dehydro thromboxane B2 levels, a marker of in vivo thromboxane generation, in 488 cases treated with aspirin who had myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death during 5 years of follow-up and in 488 sex- and age-matched control subjects also receiving aspirin who did not have an event. After adjustment for baseline differences, the odds for the composite outcome of myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death increased with each increasing quartile of 11-dehydro thromboxane B2, with patients in the upper quartile having a 1.8-times-higher risk than those in the lower quartile (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2 to 2.7; P=0.009). Those in the upper quartile had a 2-times-higher risk of myocardial infarction (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.2 to 3.4; P=0.006) and a 3.5-times-higher risk of cardiovascular death (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.7 to 7.4; P
Notes
Comment In: Circulation. 2002 Apr 9;105(14):1620-211940535
Comment In: Circulation. 2002 Apr 9;105(14):e9094-511942339
Comment In: Circulation. 2002 Dec 10;106(24):e200-1; author reply e200-112473569
Comment In: Circulation. 2002 Nov 26;106(22):e181-2; author reply e181-212451018
PubMed ID
11940542 View in PubMed
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Black tea consumption and risk of stroke in women and men.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature117466
Source
Ann Epidemiol. 2013 Mar;23(3):157-60
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2013
Author
Susanna C Larsson
Jarmo Virtamo
Alicja Wolk
Author Affiliation
Division of Nutritional Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden. Susanna.Larsson@ki.se
Source
Ann Epidemiol. 2013 Mar;23(3):157-60
Date
Mar-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cohort Studies
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Stroke - epidemiology - prevention & control
Sweden - epidemiology
Tea
Abstract
Our aim was examine the association between black tea consumption and risk of total stroke and stroke types in a prospective study.
A total of 74,961 Swedish women and men who were free of cardiovascular disease and cancer at baseline in 1997 were followed up through December 2008. Tea consumption was assessed with a questionnaire at baseline. Stroke cases were ascertained from the Swedish Hospital Discharge Registry.
During a mean follow-up of 10.2 years, we ascertained 4089 cases of first stroke, including 3159 cerebral infarctions, 435 intracerebral hemorrhages, 148 subarachnoid hemorrhages, and 347 unspecified strokes. After adjustment for other risk factors, high tea consumption was associated with a significantly lower risk of total stroke; however, there was no dose-response relation (P for trend = .36). Compared with no tea consumption, the multivariable relative risk for four or more cups per day (median, 5) was 0.79 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.62-0.998). The corresponding relative risks were 0.80 (95% CI, 0.61-1.04) for cerebral infarction and 0.68 (95% CI, 0.35-1.30) for hemorrhagic stroke.
These findings suggest that daily consumption of four or more cups of black tea is inversely associated with risk of stroke.
PubMed ID
23295000 View in PubMed
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Clinical consequences of hospital variation in use of oral anticoagulant therapy after first-time admission for atrial fibrillation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature90454
Source
J Intern Med. 2009 Mar;265(3):335-44
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2009
Author
Hansen M L
Gadsbøll N.
Rasmussen S.
Gislason G H
Folke F.
Andersen S S
Schramm T K
Sørensen R.
Fosbøl E L
Abildstrøm S Z
Madsen M.
Poulsen H E
Køber L.
Torp-Pedersen C.
Author Affiliation
Department of Cardiology, Gentofte University Hospital, Hellerup, Denmark. mlh@heart.dk
Source
J Intern Med. 2009 Mar;265(3):335-44
Date
Mar-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Administration, Oral
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Anticoagulants - therapeutic use
Atrial Fibrillation - complications
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Hospitals - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Patient Readmission - statistics & numerical data
Proportional Hazards Models
Risk factors
Stroke - epidemiology - prevention & control
Thromboembolism - epidemiology
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To analyse how hospital factors influence the use of oral anticoagulants (OAC) in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients and address the clinical consequences of hospital variation in OAC use. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: By linkage of nationwide Danish administrative registers we conducted an observational study including all patients with a first-time hospitalization for AF between 1995 and 2004 as well as prescription claims for OAC. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate hospital factors associated with prescription of OAC therapy. Cox proportional-hazard models were used to estimate the risk of re-hospitalization for thromboembolism and haemorrhagic stroke with respect to discharge from a low, intermediate, or high OAC use hospital. RESULTS: Overall 40,133 (37%) out of 108,504 patients received OAC; ranging from 17% to 50% between the hospitals with the lowest and highest OAC use, respectively. Cardiology departments had the highest use of OAC, but neither tertiary university hospitals nor high volume hospitals had higher OAC use than local community hospitals and low volume hospitals. Risk of a thromboembolic event was significantly increased amongst patients from hospitals with a low OAC use (hazard ratio 1.16, confidence interval 1.10-1.22). Notably, higher OAC use was not associated with a higher risk of haemorrhagic stroke. CONCLUSION: In Denmark between 1995 and 2004, there was a major hospital variation in AF patients receiving OAC, and consequently, more thromboembolic events were observed amongst patients from low OAC use hospitals. Our study emphasizes the need for a continued vigilance on implementation of international AF management guidelines.
PubMed ID
19141096 View in PubMed
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Comparative effectiveness and safety of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants and warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation: propensity weighted nationwide cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature280433
Source
BMJ. 2016 Jun 16;353:i3189
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-16-2016
Author
Torben Bjerregaard Larsen
Flemming Skjøth
Peter Brønnum Nielsen
Jette Nordstrøm Kjældgaard
Gregory Y H Lip
Source
BMJ. 2016 Jun 16;353:i3189
Date
Jun-16-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Administration, Oral
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Anticoagulants - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Atrial Fibrillation - drug therapy - epidemiology
Cohort Studies
Dabigatran - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Denmark - epidemiology
Drug Administration Schedule
Embolism - epidemiology - prevention & control
Female
Hemorrhage - chemically induced - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Propensity Score
Pyrazoles - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Pyridones - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Registries
Rivaroxaban - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Stroke - epidemiology - prevention & control
Treatment Outcome
Warfarin - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Abstract
 To study the effectiveness and safety of the non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (novel oral anticoagulants, NOACs) dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban compared with warfarin in anticoagulant naïve patients with atrial fibrillation.
 Observational nationwide cohort study.
 Three Danish nationwide databases, August 2011 to October 2015.
 61?678 patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation who were naïve to oral anticoagulants and had no previous indication for valvular atrial fibrillation or venous thromboembolism. The study population was distributed according to treatment type: warfarin (n=35?436, 57%), dabigatran 150 mg (n=12?701, 21%), rivaroxaban 20 mg (n=7192, 12%), and apixaban 5 mg (n=6349, 10%).
 Effectiveness outcomes defined a priori were ischaemic stroke; a composite of ischaemic stroke or systemic embolism; death; and a composite of ischaemic stroke, systemic embolism, or death. Safety outcomes were any bleeding, intracranial bleeding, and major bleeding.
 When the analysis was restricted to ischaemic stroke, NOACs were not significantly different from warfarin. During one year follow-up, rivaroxaban was associated with lower annual rates of ischaemic stroke or systemic embolism (3.0% v 3.3%, respectively) compared with warfarin: hazard ratio 0.83 (95% confidence interval 0.69 to 0.99). The hazard ratios for dabigatran and apixaban (2.8% and 4.9% annually, respectively) were non-significant compared with warfarin. The annual risk of death was significantly lower with apixaban (5.2%) and dabigatran (2.7%) (0.65, 0.56 to 0.75 and 0.63, 0.48 to 0.82, respectively) compared with warfarin (8.5%), but not with rivaroxaban (7.7%). For the combined endpoint of any bleeding, annual rates for apixaban (3.3%) and dabigatran (2.4%) were significantly lower than for warfarin (5.0%) (0.62, 0.51 to 0.74). Warfarin and rivaroxaban had comparable annual bleeding rates (5.3%).
 All NOACs seem to be safe and effective alternatives to warfarin in a routine care setting. No significant difference was found between NOACs and warfarin for ischaemic stroke. The risks of death, any bleeding, or major bleeding were significantly lower for apixaban and dabigatran compared with warfarin.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27312796 View in PubMed
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Comparison of antiplatelet regimens in secondary stroke prevention: a nationwide cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature273512
Source
BMC Neurol. 2015;15:225
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Christine Benn Christiansen
Jannik Pallisgaard
Thomas Alexander Gerds
Jonas Bjerring Olesen
Mads Emil Jørgensen
Anna Karin Numé
Nicholas Carlson
Søren Lund Kristensen
Gunnar Gislason
Christian Torp-Pedersen
Source
BMC Neurol. 2015;15:225
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Aspirin - adverse effects
Brain Ischemia - drug therapy - epidemiology
Cerebral Hemorrhage - chemically induced - epidemiology
Cohort Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Dipyridamole - adverse effects
Drug Therapy, Combination
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors - adverse effects
Recurrence
Registries
Secondary Prevention
Stroke - epidemiology - prevention & control
Ticlopidine - adverse effects - analogs & derivatives
Abstract
In patients with ischemic stroke of non-cardioembolic origin, acetylsalicylic acid, clopidogrel, or a combination of acetylsalicylic acid and dipyridamole are recommended for the prevention of a recurrent stroke. The purpose of this study was to examine the risk of bleeding or recurrent stroke associated with these three treatments.
Patients who were discharged with first-time ischemic stroke from 2007-2010, with no history of atrial fibrillation were identified from Danish nationwide registries. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 1-year risks of recurrent ischemic stroke and bleeding were calculated for each antiplatelet regimen.
Among patients discharged after first-time ischemic stroke, 3043 patients were treated with acetylsalicylic acid, 12,295 with a combination of acetylsalicylic acid and dipyridamole, and 3885 with clopidogrel. Adjusted HRs for clopidogrel versus the combination of acetylsalicylic acid and dipyridamole were 1.02 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.89-1.17) for ischemic stroke and 1.06 (95% CI: 0.83-1.35) for bleeding. Adjusted HRs for acetylsalicylic acid versus the combination of acetylsalicylic acid and dipyridamole were 1.48 (95% CI: 1.31-1.67) for stroke and 1.47 (95% CI: 1.18-1.82) for bleeding. Clopidogrel versus acetylsalicylic acid yielded HRs of 0.69 (95% CI: 0.59-0.81) and 0.72 (95% CI: 0.55-0.96) for stroke and bleeding, respectively. The 1-year predicted risks associated with acetylsalicylic acid, the combination of acetylsalicylic acid and dipyridamole, and clopidogrel were 11.1 (95% CI: 10.2-12.2), 7.7 (95% CI: 7.3-8.3), and 8.0 (95% CI: 6.9-8.7) for ischemic stroke, respectively; while, the risks for bleeding were 3.4 (95% CI: 2.8-3.9), 2.4 (95% CI: 2.1-2.7), and 2.4 (95% CI: 1.9-2.9), respectively.
Clopidogrel and the combination of acetylsalicylic acid and dipyridamole were associated with similar risks for recurrent ischemic stroke and bleeding; whereas acetylsalicylic acid was associated with higher risks for both ischemic stroke and bleeding. The latter finding may partially be explained by selection bias.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26525411 View in PubMed
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Coronary heart disease and stroke in developing countries: time to act.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature191718
Source
Int J Epidemiol. 2001 Dec;30(6):1493-4; author reply 1496-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2001

51 records – page 1 of 6.