to estimate the frequency and severity of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with stroke and the influence of AKI on intra-hospital lethality.
180 patients with stroke. 8 (4.4%) of them died within 24 hr after admission. It was impossible to diagnose AKI in these patients from serum creatinine dynamics. The development of AKI was followed up in the remaining 80 (47.1%) men and 91 (52.9%) women (mean age 66.6 ± 11.2 yr). AKI was diagnosed and classified as recommended by KDIGO (2012).
AKI was documented in 47 (27.3%) patients including 13 (41.9%) and 34 (24.1%) with hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke respectively. Logistic regressive analysis revealed association of in-hospital lethality with AKI (relative risk 2.5; 95%, CI 1.7-3.8) regardless of sex, age, stroke type, duration of the disease prior to hospitalisation, arterial hypertension, and diabetes.
stroke is complicated by AKI in every fourth patient; in combination, they significantly increase intra-hospital lethality.
Limited information is available on the effect of age on stroke management and care delivery. Our aim was to determine whether access to stroke care, delivery of health services, and clinical outcomes after stroke are affected by age.
This was a prospective cohort study of patients with acute ischemic stroke in the province of Ontario, Canada, admitted to stroke centers participating in the Registry of the Canadian Stroke Network between July 1, 2003 and March 31, 2005. Primary outcomes were the following selected indicators of quality stroke care: (1) use of thrombolysis; (2) dysphagia screening; (3) admission to a stroke unit; (4) carotid imaging; (5) antithrombotic therapy; and (6) warfarin for atrial fibrillation at discharge. Secondary outcomes were risk-adjusted stroke fatality, discharge disposition, pneumonia, and length of hospital stay.
Among 3631 patients with ischemic stroke, 1219 (33.6%) were older than 80 years. There were no significant differences in stroke care delivery by age group. Stroke fatality increased with age, with a 30-day risk adjusted fatality of 7.1%, 6.5%, 8.8%, and 14.8% for those aged 59 or younger, 60 to 69, 70 to 79, and 80 years or older, respectively. Those aged older than 80 years had a longer length of hospitalization, increased risk of pneumonia, and higher disability at discharge compared to those younger than 80. This group was also less likely to be discharged home.
In the context of a province-wide coordinated stroke care system, stroke care delivery was similar across all age groups with the exception of slightly lower rates of investigations in the very elderly. Increasing age was associated with stroke severity and stroke case-fatality.
The natural course of aphasia in unselected, consecutive stroke patients is not well established. We investigated morbidity, mortality and recovery for different types of aphasia in consecutive unselected aphasic patients with acute stroke. Setting and subjects. In 119 aphasic patients, the type and degree of aphasia were assessed acutely and at 3, 6 and 18 months after stroke onset, using Reinvang's 'Grunntest for afasi' and Amsterdam-Nijmegen-Everyday-Language-Test.
About one-third of patients with acute stroke had presented with aphasia. Mortality among the aphasic patients during the 18-month follow-up was twice that in non-aphasics (36 vs. 16%). Presence of atrial fibrillation was associated with poorer prognosis. At 18 months, 24% of the 119 aphasic patients had recovered completely, 43% still had significant aphasia, and 21% had died. The proportion with global aphasia decreased from almost 25% acutely to a few per cent after 18 months, that with Wernicke's aphasia from 25% to less than 10%, whereas conduction aphasia increased from 13 to 23% during follow-up. Among those with initial mild aphasia, 70% recovered completely. Great improvement was observed in patients with initial low degree of speech function. Younger patients recovered to a greater extent than older patients.
The high long-term mortality among aphasics may be seen as an indirect sign of advanced cardiovascular disease. A combination of different and adjusted aphasia tests provided the possibility to assess almost all acute aphasic patients. Irrespective of type and degree of aphasia, great improvements were seen in almost all aphasic patients. Even patients with severe speech impairment have a considerable potential for recovery, particularly in the first 3 months after stroke.
The risk of death is increased for persons with epilepsy. The literature on causes of death in epilepsy is based mainly on cohorts with epilepsy of mixed aetiologies. For clinical purposes and improved understanding of mortality in different epilepsies, more information is needed on mortality in epilepsies of specific causes. In poststroke epilepsy (PSE), seizures occur in a setting of vascular disease and high mortality rates. The extent to which epilepsy contributes to mortality in this patient group is poorly understood. We therefore aimed to describe causes of death (COD) in PSE on a national scale. A previously identified cohort of 7740 patients with epilepsy or seizures after a stroke in 2005-2010 was investigated. A total of 4167 deaths occurred before the end of 2014. The standardized mortality ratio for the study cohort was 3.56 (95% CI: 3.45-3.67). The main underlying causes of death were disorders of the circulatory system (60%) followed by neoplasms (12%). Diseases of the nervous system were the sixth leading underlying COD (3%), and epilepsy or status epilepticus was considered the underlying COD in approximately a similar proportion of cases as neurodegenerative disorders (0.9% and 1.1%, respectively). Epilepsy was considered a contributing COD in 14% of cases. Our findings highlight the importance of optimal management of vascular morbidity in patients with PSE. The large proportion of patients with epilepsy as a contributing COD indicate the need of high ambitions also regarding the management of seizures in patients with PSE.
Diabetes is an established risk factor for stroke. Compared to nondiabetic patients, diabetic patients also have an increased risk of new vascular events and death after stroke. We analyzed how differences in long-term survival between diabetic and nondiabetic stroke patients have changed over time, and if differences varied with respect to sex and age.
This population-based study included 12,375 first-ever stroke patients, 25-74 years old, who were registered in the Northern Sweden MONICA Stroke Registry 1985-2005. Uniform diagnostic criteria for stroke case ascertainment were used throughout the study period. The diagnosis of diabetes was based on medical records or diabetes diagnosed during the acute stroke event. Patients were separated into four cohorts according to year of stroke and followed for survival until August 30, 2008.
The diabetes prevalence at stroke onset was 21%, similar in men and women, and remained stable throughout the study period. The diabetic patients were an average of 2 years older, more often nonsmokers and more likely to have antihypertensive treatment, antithrombotics, atrial fibrillation, and a history of myocardial infarction or transient ischemic attack than the nondiabetic patients. The total follow-up time was 86,086 patient-years during which a total of 1,930 (75.7%) of the diabetic patients and 5,744 (58.5%) of the nondiabetic patients died (p
Stroke is the leading cause of seizures and epilepsy in the elderly. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of post-stroke epilepsy (PSE) based on the revised epilepsy definition of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) in a population-based study and to describe possible predictors.
Data from the prospective population-based Erlangen Stroke Project (ESPro) were collected to describe the frequency of PSE. Patients were followed up 3, 12, and 24 months after stroke. Stroke was diagnosed according to the WHO and PSE according to the new ILAE criteria. Multivariable analysis was performed to identify predictors of PSE including age, sex, stroke type, stroke severity, and comorbidities.
From 1998 to 2006, 1815 patients with first-ever stroke were included (55.7% women; mean age 72.7 years, SD 13). Patients with known (n = 52) or unknown (n = 331) prior-to-stroke epilepsy or no available information on post-stroke seizures (n = 412) were excluded. From the remaining 1020 patients, 84 (8.2%) developed PSE within 2 years after stroke. Univariate analysis demonstrated stroke severity (P
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Only few have studied long-term survival after stroke. Such knowledge is essential for the evaluation of the current and future burden of stroke. The present study presents up to 30 years of follow-up of patients after a first-ever stroke. METHODS: Participants in the Copenhagen City Heart Study who experienced a first-ever stroke from 1978 to the end of 2001 were followed to the end of 2007. Stroke events were validated using the World Health Organization's definition of stroke. Linkage to the Danish Civil Registration System enabled identification of participants who died before the end of 2007. The National Register of Causes of Death provided cause of death. Survival in stroke patients was compared with survival in participants in the Copenhagen City Heart Study who did not suffer a stroke, and with survival in the general Danish population. Cox regression analyses adjusting for age and gender were used to compare survival in six consecutive 4-year periods starting with 1978-1982. RESULTS: Of 2,051 patients with first-ever stroke 1,801 died during follow-up. Causes of death were cerebrovascular disease in 37%, other cardiovascular diseases in 28%, cancer in 12%, and other causes in 23%. The most important determinant for long-term survival was age at time of stroke. In the 65- to 72-year age group 11% survived 15 years after stroke. In the age group
That oral health is related to the development of different cardiovascular disorders is reported in a number of studies. This study investigates if different parameters of oral health are associated with future mortality in different cardiovascular disorders in a dose-dependent manner.
A total of 7,674 subjects (3,300 males and 4,374 females; age range 20 to 89 years) received a dental examination by specialists in periodontology between the years 1976 and 2002. Number of remaining teeth, severity of periodontal disease, number of deepened periodontal pockets, and bleeding on probing were evaluated in relation to cause of death.
During a median follow-up period of 12 years, 629 of the subjects died. For 299 subjects the cause of mortality was cardiovascular disease (CVD); 167 of these subjects died from coronary heart disease (CHD); 83 died from stroke; and 49 died from aortic aneurysm or congestive heart failure. The causes of death for the remaining 330 subjects were other than CVD. After adjustment for age, gender, and smoking, number of remaining teeth predicted in a dose-dependent manner all-cause mortality and mortality in CVD and in CHD (P 25 teeth. Severity of periodontal disease, number of deepened periodontal pockets, and bleeding on probing were not related to mortality in a dose-dependent manner after adjustment for confounders.
This fairly large, prospective study with a long follow-up period presents for the first time a dose-dependent relationship between number of teeth and both all-cause and CVD mortality, indicating a link between oral health and CVD, and that the number of teeth is a proper indicator for oral health in this respect.
Sleep apnea occurs frequently among patients with stroke, but it is still unknown whether a diagnosis of sleep apnea is an independent risk factor for mortality. We aimed to investigate whether obstructive or central sleep apnea was related to reduced long-term survival among patients with stroke.
Of 151 patients admitted for in-hospital stroke rehabilitation in the catchment area of Umeå from April 1, 1995, to May 1, 1997, 132 underwent overnight sleep apnea recordings at a mean (SD) of 23 (8) days after the onset of stroke. All patients were followed up prospectively for a mean (SD) of 10.0 (0.6) years, with death as the primary outcome; no one was lost to follow-up. Obstructive sleep apnea was defined when the obstructive apnea-hypopnea index was 15 or greater, and central sleep apnea was defined when the central apnea-hypopnea index was 15 or greater. Patients with obstructive and central apnea-hypopnea indexes of less than 15 served as control subjects.
Of 132 enrolled patients, 116 had died at follow-up. The risk of death was higher among the 23 patients with obstructive sleep apnea than controls (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.76; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-2.95; P = .03), independent of age, sex, body mass index, smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, Mini-Mental State Examination score, and Barthel index of activities of daily living. There was no difference in mortality between the 28 patients with central sleep apnea and controls (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.07; 95% confidence interval, 0.65-1.76; P = .80).
Patients with stroke and obstructive sleep apnea have an increased risk of early death. Central sleep apnea was not related to early death among the present patients.
Delirium is a frequent post-stroke complication that compromises effective rehabilitation and has been associated with poor outcome. We aimed to investigate whether delirium is associated with increased risk of post-stroke dementia and long-term mortality once confounding is taken into account.
The study comprised 263 consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients aged 55-85 years admitted to the emergency department of a university hospital. The cohort included three-month survivors followed up for 10 years. The diagnosis of post-stroke delirium during the first 7 days after stroke was based on the DSM-IV criteria.
Of all the patients, 50 (19.0%) were diagnosed with delirium. Low education, pre-stroke cognitive decline, and severe stroke indicated by a Modified Rankin score between 3 and 5 were risk factors for post-stroke delirium, which was also associated with diagnosis of dementia at 3 months post-stroke. In the Kaplan-Meier analysis, delirium was associated with poor long-term survival (6.1 versus 9.1 years). In the stepwise Cox regression proportional hazards analysis adjusted for demographic factors and risk factors, advanced age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.08) and stroke severity (HR 1.83), but not post-stroke delirium, were associated with poor survival.
In our well-defined cohort of post-stroke patients, acute stage delirium was diagnosed in one in five patients and associated with dementia at 3 months. Advanced age and stroke severity were related to the higher long-term mortality among patients with post-stroke delirium.