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The aftermath of an industrial disaster.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature209965
Source
Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. 1997;392:1-25
Publication Type
Article
Date
1997
Author
A. Elklit
Author Affiliation
Institute of Psychology, University of Aarhus, Denmark.
Source
Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. 1997;392:1-25
Date
1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Occupational - psychology
Adaptation, Psychological
Adolescent
Adult
Asphyxia - psychology
Blast Injuries - psychology
Burns - psychology
Crisis Intervention
Denmark
Explosions
Female
Humans
Industry
Male
Middle Aged
Personality Inventory - statistics & numerical data
Psychometrics
Relief Work
Ships
Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic - diagnosis - psychology - therapy
Abstract
An explosion in a Danish supertanker under construction in 1994 caused the death of six workers and injured 15. Six months later 270 workers took part in this study, which analyses the relationships between objective stressors, the workers' own feelings and the reactions of their families after the explosion together with training, attitude to the workplace, general out-look, and received crisis help. Traumatisation, coping style and crisis support was assessed via the Impact of Event Scale (IES), the Coping Styles Questionnaire (CSQ) and the Crisis Support Scale (CSS). Emotionally, workers and their families were strongly affected by the explosion. The IES-score was 17.6 and the invasion score 9.1. The degree of traumatisation was higher in the group who had an 'audience position' than in the group who was directly hit by the explosion. Training in rescue work did not protect against adverse effects. Rescue work had a strong impact on the involved. Social support was a significant factor, that seems to buffer negative effects. High level of social integration, effective leadership in the situation, and professional crisis intervention characterised the disaster situation. All the same, 41 per cent of the workers reached the caseness criteria by Horowitz (IES > or = 19).
PubMed ID
9284976 View in PubMed
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Case management in the Canadian Forces.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature179211
Source
Lippincotts Case Manag. 2004 May-Jun;9(3):141-6
Publication Type
Article
Author
Danielle Bérubé
Author Affiliation
Health Services Delivery, Canadian Forces Medical Group Headquarters, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Berube.D@forces.gc.ca
Source
Lippincotts Case Manag. 2004 May-Jun;9(3):141-6
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Canada
Case Management - organization & administration
Continuity of Patient Care - organization & administration
Health Care Reform - organization & administration
Health Status Indicators
Humans
Male
Military Medicine - organization & administration
Military Personnel - psychology
National Health Programs
Patient satisfaction
Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic - diagnosis - psychology - therapy
Abstract
Changes in the Canadian military healthcare structure, and an increased reliance on the public healthcare sector, resulted in care fragmentation and a growing dissatisfaction among members with the quality of health services. To remedy the situation, the Canadian Forces began a major re-engineering of its healthcare services. A component of this reform was the implementation of a case management program to improve the continuity of care for members with complex or chronic medical conditions. Member satisfaction surveys revealed that the case management program meets their needs.
PubMed ID
15252365 View in PubMed
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Development of a Screening and Brief Intervention Process for Symptoms of Psychological Trauma Among Primary Care Patients of Two American Indian and Alaska Native Health Systems.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290136
Source
J Behav Health Serv Res. 2017 Apr; 44(2):224-241
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Apr-2017
Author
Vanessa Y Hiratsuka
Laurie Moore
Denise A Dillard
Jaedon P Avey
Lisa G Dirks
Barbara Beach
Douglas Novins
Author Affiliation
Southcentral Foundation Research Department, 4085 Tudor Centre Drive, Anchorage, AK, 99508, USA. vhiratsuka@scf.cc.
Source
J Behav Health Serv Res. 2017 Apr; 44(2):224-241
Date
Apr-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Alaska Natives
Community-Based Participatory Research
Focus Groups
Humans
Indians, North American
Mass Screening
Psychological Trauma - diagnosis - psychology - therapy
Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic - diagnosis - psychology - therapy
Abstract
American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) people experience high rates of acute, chronic, and intergenerational trauma. Traumatic experiences often increase the risk of both medical and behavioral health problems making primary care settings opportune places to screen for trauma exposure or symptomology. The objective of this study was to determine considerations and recommendations provided by patients, health care providers, health care administrators, and tribal leaders in the development of an adult trauma screening, brief intervention, and referral for treatment process to pilot at two large AI/AN primary care systems. A qualitative and iterative data collection and analysis process was undertaken using a community-based participatory research approach guided by a cross-site steering committee. Twenty-four leaders and providers participated in individual interviews, and 13 patients participated in four focus groups. Data were thematically analyzed to select a trauma screening instrument, develop a screening process, and develop brief intervention materials. The nature of traumas experienced in the AI/AN community, the need to develop trusting patient-provider relationships, and the human resources available at each site drove the screening, brief intervention, and referral process decisions for a future trauma screening pilot in these health systems.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27328846 View in PubMed
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A preliminary study of the naturalistic course of non-manualized psychotherapy for outpatients with borderline personality disorder: Patient characteristics, attrition and outcome.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature98657
Source
Nord J Psychiatry. 2010 Apr;64(2):87-93
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2010
Author
Tor E Nysaeter
Hans M Nordahl
Odd E Havik
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway. Tor.Nysater@svt.ntnu.no
Source
Nord J Psychiatry. 2010 Apr;64(2):87-93
Date
Apr-2010
Language
English
Geographic Location
Norway
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Ambulatory Care
Borderline Personality Disorder - diagnosis - psychology - therapy
Comorbidity
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Female
Humans
Interview, Psychological
Male
Norway
Patient Dropouts - psychology
Personality Inventory
Professional-Patient Relations
Prospective Studies
Psychotherapy - methods
Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic - diagnosis - psychology - therapy
Treatment Outcome
Young Adult
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Psychotherapy is an effective treatment for borderline personality disorder (BPD), but little is known about the long-term effect of non-manualized psychotherapy for these patients. AIMS: The aim of the preliminary study was to investigate the long-term effect of non-manualized psychotherapy on an outpatient sample (n = 32) with a primary diagnosis of BPD. METHODS: The current study was based on an open-ended naturalistic design with a 2-year follow-up. Assessment at intake, discharge and follow-up comprised the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I, II and V, and the general level of self-reported symptomatic (SCL-90R) and interpersonal distress (IIP-64C). RESULTS: Patients with BPD respond well to non-manualized psychotherapy as intent-to-treat analyses estimate that 62% no longer met the DSM-IV criteria for a BPD diagnosis at discharge, 66% at 2-year follow-up. In addition, significant improvement with large effect sizes was found for all outcome variables at both discharge and at follow-up. Attrition was associated with patient-therapist gender mismatch, low occupational status and the presence of post-traumatic stress disorder. CONCLUSION: The results imply that the natural course of non-manualized psychotherapy is overall beneficial for outpatients with BPD.
Notes
RefSource: Nord J Psychiatry. 2010 Apr;64(2):75-7
PubMed ID
19958254 View in PubMed
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Psychiatry, war, and the learning needs of residents.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature143894
Source
Acad Psychiatry. 2010 May-Jun;34(3):208-10
Publication Type
Article
Author
Alpna Munshi
Nicole Woods
Brian Hodges
Author Affiliation
The Wilson Centre, 200 Elizabeth Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. alpna.munshi@gmail.com
Source
Acad Psychiatry. 2010 May-Jun;34(3):208-10
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Canada
Education
Female
Health services needs and demand
Humans
Internship and Residency
Learning
Male
Psychiatry - education
Questionnaires
Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic - diagnosis - psychology - therapy
War
Abstract
The authors sought to determine the learning needs, experiences, and attitudes of psychiatric residents in relation to war and mental health; to discover if residents in their training program have had clinical experiences with patients affected by war and if they believed that they were adequately trained to deal with these encounters; and to explore if residents believe psychiatrists should play a role in the lives of those affected by war and, if so, what types of roles they believe psychiatrists should take.
The authors developed a survey to assess resident attitudes toward psychiatrists' roles in relation to war and related clinical experiences and learning needs. The survey was administered to psychiatric residents at the largest psychiatric residency program in Canada.
The majority of the 52 respondents believed that psychiatrists have a role in mitigating the effects of war. Although 75% of residents (n=38) had encountered a patient who was traumatized by war, none reported feeling completely prepared. Approximately 90% of residents (n=44) reported that they would like to learn more about this area.
In a Canadian residency program that does not provide clinical rotations in a military hospital, most psychiatric residents surveyed were interested in the effects of war on mental health and would like more clinical training in this area.
PubMed ID
20431101 View in PubMed
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A randomized effectiveness study comparing trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy with therapy as usual for youth.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature108141
Source
J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2014;43(3):356-69
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Tine K Jensen
Tonje Holt
Silje M Ormhaug
Karina Egeland
Lene Granly
Live C Hoaas
Silje S Hukkelberg
Tore Indregard
Shirley D Stormyren
Tore Wentzel-Larsen
Author Affiliation
a Norwegian Centre for Violence and Traumatic Stress Studies.
Source
J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2014;43(3):356-69
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Anxiety - psychology - therapy
Child
Cognitive Therapy - methods
Community Mental Health Services
Depression - psychology - therapy
Female
Humans
Male
Norway
Psychotherapy, Group - methods
Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic - diagnosis - psychology - therapy
Treatment Outcome
United States
Abstract
The efficacy of trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) has been shown in several randomized controlled trials. However, few trials have been conducted in community clinics, few have used therapy as usual (TAU) as a comparison group, and none have been conducted outside of the United States. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of TF-CBT in regular community settings compared with TAU. One hundred fifty-six traumatized youth (M age = 15.1 years, range = 10-18; 79.5% girls) were randomly assigned to TF-CBT or TAU. Intent-to-treat analysis using mixed effects models showed that youth receiving TF-CBT reported significantly lower levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms (est. = 5.78, d = 0.51), 95% CI [2.32, 9.23]; depression (est. = 7.00, d = 0.54), 95% CI [2.04, 11.96]; and general mental health symptoms (est. = 2.54, d = 0.45), 95% CI [0.50, 4.58], compared with youth in the TAU group. Youth assigned to TF-CBT showed significantly greater improvements in functional impairment (est. = -1.05, d = -0.55), 95% CI [-1.67, -0.42]. Although the same trend was found for anxiety reduction, this difference was not statistically significant (est. = 4.34, d = 0.30), 95% CI [-1.50, 10.19]. Significantly fewer youths in the TF-CBT condition were diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder compared to youths in the TAU condition, ?(2)(1, N = 116) = 4.61, p = .031, Phi = .20). Findings indicate that TF-CBT is effective in treating traumatized youth in community mental health clinics and that the program may also be successfully implemented in countries outside the United States.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23931093 View in PubMed
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Reactions to adolescent suicide and crisis intervention in three secondary schools.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature68346
Source
Int J Emerg Ment Health. 2001;3(2):97-106
Publication Type
Article
Date
2001
Author
S. Poijula
A. Dyregrov
K E Wahlberg
J. Jokelainen
Author Affiliation
Oy Synolon Ltd., Center for Trauma Psychology, Oulu, Finland. Soili.Poijula@netppl.fi
Source
Int J Emerg Ment Health. 2001;3(2):97-106
Date
2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Crisis Intervention
Female
Finland
Grief
Humans
Interpersonal Relations
Male
Peer Group
Personality Inventory
Psychotherapy
Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic - diagnosis - psychology - therapy
Suicide - psychology
Abstract
This study investigated crisis intervention in three secondary schools after the suicides of five students, focusing on the 89 classmates' risk of developing symptoms of PTSD (measured by IES) and high intensity (HI) grief as measured by Hogan Sibling Inventory of Bereavement. Crisis interventions for the students varied from none to first talk-throughs and psychological debriefings. Six months after the suicide, 30% of the classmates evidenced scores indicative of PTSD and 9.8% evidenced HI grief. Friendship was a predictor of PTSD and HI grief. Inadequate crisis intervention was a risk factor for HI grief. Proper crisis intervention, and appropriate screening and focused post-trauma psychotherapy after a suicide of a student are recommended.
PubMed ID
11508571 View in PubMed
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Relationship of Pretreatment Rorschach Factors to Symptoms, Quality of Life, and Real-Life Functioning in a 3-Year Follow-Up of Traumatized Refugee Patients.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature280098
Source
J Pers Assess. 2016;98(3):247-60
Publication Type
Article
Date
2016
Author
Marianne Opaas
Ellen Hartmann
Tore Wentzel-Larsen
Sverre Varvin
Source
J Pers Assess. 2016;98(3):247-60
Date
2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Africa - ethnology
Asia - ethnology
Europe, Eastern - ethnology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Middle East - ethnology
Norway
Psychotherapy - methods
Quality of Life - psychology
Refugees - psychology
Rorschach test
Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic - diagnosis - psychology - therapy
Abstract
Response to mental health treatment varies highly among refugee patients. Research has not established which factors relate to differences in outcome. This study is a follow-up of Opaas and Hartmann's (2013) Rorschach Inkblot Method (RIM; Exner, 2003) pretreatment study of traumatized refugees, where 2 RIM principal components, Trauma Response and Reality Testing, were found descriptive of participants' trauma-related personality functioning. This study's aims were to examine relationships of the RIM components with measures of anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress, quality of life (QOL), employment, and exile language skills throughout 3 years. We found that impaired Reality Testing was related to more mental health symptoms and poorer QOL; furthermore, individuals with adequate Reality Testing improved in posttraumatic stress symptoms the first year and retained their improvement. Individuals with impaired Reality Testing deteriorated the first year and improved only slightly the next 2 years. The results of this study imply that traumatized refugee patients with impaired Reality Testing might need specific treatment approaches. Research follow-up periods should be long enough to detect changes. The reality testing impairment revealed by the RIM, mainly perceptual in quality, might not be easily detected by diagnostic interviews and self-report.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26528822 View in PubMed
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A school-based mental health intervention for refugee children: an exploratory study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature152015
Source
Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2009 Apr;14(2):297-309
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2009
Author
Mina Fazel
Helen Doll
Alan Stein
Author Affiliation
Oxford University, UK. mina.fazel@psych.ox.ac.uk
Source
Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2009 Apr;14(2):297-309
Date
Apr-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acculturation
Adolescent
Child
Child, Preschool
Conduct Disorder - diagnosis - psychology - therapy
England
Female
Humans
Interdisciplinary Communication
Male
Mental Disorders - diagnosis - psychology - therapy
Mental Health Services - organization & administration
Patient Care Team - organization & administration
Peer Group
Personality Assessment
Referral and Consultation - organization & administration
Refugees - psychology
School Health Services - organization & administration
Social Identification
Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic - diagnosis - psychology - therapy
Abstract
This report describes an exploratory study of a school-based mental health service developed to address the psychological needs of refugee children. The service was made available in three schools and followed a consultative framework. Refugee children were discussed with the mental health team and children at greatest risk were seen. A questionnaire of psychological functioning was completed by teachers before and after the intervention. Data were collected on 47 refugee children and two control groups (ethnic minority and indigenous white children). Subgroup analyses compared children who were seen directly by the service with those for whom only consultation was provided. Refugee children had poorer overall adjustment at baseline particularly in the emotional and peer problem domains. The greatest improvements following the intervention were seen in hyperactivity for the refugee group and in peer problems for the refugees directly seen by the service. While further studies are necessary to assess its efficacy, this exploratory study indicates that an intervention which involves collaboration with teachers and parents, in an environment where children spend much of their time, can benefit vulnerable children.
PubMed ID
19293324 View in PubMed
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