This study explores the stability and change in maternal life satisfaction and psychological distress following the birth of a child with a congenital anomaly using 5 assessments from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study collected from Pregnancy Week 17 to 36 months postpartum. Participating mothers were divided into those having infants with (a) Down syndrome (DS; n = 114), (b) cleft lip/palate (CLP; n = 179), and (c) no disability (ND; n = 99,122). Responses on the Satisfaction With Life Scale and a short version of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist were analyzed using structural equation modeling, including latent growth curves. Satisfaction and distress levels were highly diverse in the sample, but fairly stable over time (retest correlations: .47-.68). However, the birth of a child with DS was associated with a rapid decrease in maternal life satisfaction and a corresponding increase in psychological distress observed between pregnancy and 6 months postpartum. The unique effects from DS on changes in satisfaction (Cohen's d = -.66) and distress (Cohen's d = .60) remained stable. Higher distress and lower life satisfaction at later assessments appeared to reflect a persistent burden that was already experienced 6 months after birth. CLP had a temporary impact (Cohen's d = .29) on maternal distress at 6 months. However, the overall trajectories did not differ between CLP and ND mothers. In sum, the birth of a child with DS influences maternal psychological distress and life satisfaction throughout the toddler period, whereas a curable condition like CLP has only a minor temporary effect on maternal psychological distress.
Limited data, especially from longitudinal studies, are available regarding vascular health assessment in childhood. In this study, we performed longitudinal and cross-sectional studies in healthy children and adolescents to investigate age- and sex-related differences in vascular functions and vascular response to mental stress.
Pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured by tonometry. Endothelial function and vascular response to mental arithmetic test were assessed using a peripheral artery tonometry device. Data were obtained in 162 adolescents (mean age of 17 years, 94 girls) in a 3-year follow-up study and 241 children (mean age of 10 years, 115 girls) in a first-time investigation. Physical activity was assessed in adolescents by a self-report questionnaire.
Our 3-year follow-up study revealed that the increased PWV was greater in male adolescents (0.79±0.79m/s) than in females (0.27±0.89m/s, p
This article explores the possible relationships between allostatic load (AL) and stress-related health issues in the low-income single-parent population, using both a population health perspective (PHP) and a biological framework. A PHP identifies associations among such factors as gender, income, employment, and social support and their potential effect on health outcomes. A PHP also recognizes physiological and pathological manifestations of the body such as stress (mental or somatic) and individual biological parameters (for example, glucose levels) as health determinants. AL uses an aggregate score of individual biological parameters as a health measure that is exacerbated through repetitive movement of physiologic systems under stress. The social work profession should incorporate knowledge of both PHP and AL into its theory and practice domains for effective care of vulnerable populations such as single-parent families.
Exaggerated cardiovascular reactivity to psychological demands may contribute to the development of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. We examined the cross-sectional association between anticipatory blood pressure (BP) responses to bicycle exercise and LV mass in the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study, a population-based epidemiological sample.
Among 876 men from 4 age cohorts (ages 42, 48, 58, and 64 years), we collected echocardiographic assessments of LV mass along with measures of BP response taken before bicycle ergometry testing. Anticipatory BP responses were positively associated with LV mass, with significant associations only among younger (age
Although the prevalence of work-related stress has increased, knowledge on the contributions of that stress to long-term adverse health effects is still lacking. Stress biomarkers can reveal early signs of negative health effects, but no previous studies have measured both acute stress reactions and long-term exposure to job strain using both salivary cortisol and a-amylase (AA). The present study examines the association between job strain and these biomarkers among shift-working female health care professionals in the laboratory and the field. The 95 participants were recruited from hospital wards categorized in either the top (high job strain [HJS] group, n = 42) or the bottom quartile of job strain (low job strain [LJS] group, n = 53), as rated by survey responses. Participants' self-perceived job strain was at least as high or low as the ward's average estimation. Saliva samples were collected during the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), preselected morning and night shifts, and a day off. There was a larger increase in the cortisol concentration of participants in the HJS than in the LJS group (2.27- vs. 1.48-fold, respectively, nonsignificant) during the TSST. Participants in the HJS group also had higher salivary AA levels 30 min after awakening on the morning-shift day than those in the LJS group (p = .02), whereas the salivary cortisol awakening response on the day off was higher in the LJS group (p = .05, education as a covariate). The remaining stress-biomarker results did not differ significantly between groups. These data suggest that HJS in shift-working health care professionals is weakly associated with changes in stress biomarkers.
We conducted an online survey including 306 participants aged 18-64?years to assess the general factor of personality (GFP) and Big Five personality traits in relation to individual stress and coping reactions following a shooting emergency alarm at a Swiss university campus. Although the emergency eventually turned out to be a false alarm, various witnesses showed pronounced distress owing to a vast police operation. The GFP structure was replicated using two alternative modelling approaches. Neuroticism related substantially to acute fear and traumatic distress as well as to more enduring maladaptive coping. Agreeableness was negatively associated with the coping strategy of medication use, whereas both agreeableness and conscientiousness related positively to social activity following the emergency. The GFP related moderately to peri-traumatic distress and showed a substantial negative association with medication use and a strong positive association with social activity. In conclusion, both the GFP and Big Five traits significantly moderate stress responses following a stressful life event. The GFP predominantly relates to socially adaptive coping, whereas in particular neuroticism accounts for acute stress reactions such as fear and traumatic distress. These findings support the notion that personality influences how persons react in the face of adversity. Copyright ? 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
This study evaluated the effectiveness of a stress management intervention combining individual cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with a brief workplace intervention on self-reported measures of sleep and cognitive functioning among patients on sick leave due to work-related stress complaints.
Participants were patients referred to the regional Department of Occupational Medicine. Inclusion criteria were (i) sick leave due to work-related stress complaints and (ii) a diagnosis of adjustment disorder/reactions to stress or mild depression. Participants (N=137) were randomized to either an intervention (N=57) or control (N=80) group. The intervention comprised six sessions with a psychologist and the offer of a small workplace intervention. Questionnaires were answered at baseline and after 4, and 10 months.
Symptoms were significantly reduced over time in both groups but there was no significant treatment effect on sleep or cognitive outcomes at any time point. From 0-4 months, there was a tendency for larger improvements in the intervention group with regards to sleep and cognitive failures in distraction. Although neither was significant, the results came close to significance depicting a small effect size (Cohen's d) on sleep complaints and distractions (but not memory).
The specific intervention was not superior to the control condition in reducing symptoms of sleep problems and cognitive difficulties at any time point during the 10-month follow-up period. Substantial improvements in symptoms over time were seen in both groups.
The authors studied psychophysiologic state of operators in coal industry and metallurgy, who were considered healthy and suitable for the work. Only 60% of the examined metallurgy operators and 21% of those engaged into coal industry appeared to meet the occupational medical requirements. By the end of the working shift 50% of the operators showed decrease of attention and 28-36%--depression of visual and hearing memory. Occupational overload induced compromised psychophysiologic parameters in 70% of the examinees. Heating combined with other hazards resulted in marked asymmetry of heating sensation, changed body heating, lower hearing sensation, worse attention, memory, decision making, emotional state.
Immediate and long-lasting effects of chronic stress during prepubertal period (21-32 postnatal days) on anxiety- and depression-related behavior were studied in Wistar and ISIAH (inherited stress-induced arterial hypertension) rats. Significant interstrain differences were found. Both juvenile and adult ISIAH rats were less anxious in the elevated plus-maze and less depressed in the forced swimming test. Immediate effects of the prepubertal stress were similar in both rat strains and depended on the type of stimulation. Long-lasting effects were genotype-dependent. Chronic prepubertal handling exerted an anxiolytic effect in young ISIAH and Wistar rats and adult Wistar rats. Immediate anxiogenic effect of prepubertal unpredictable stress was preserved only in adult ISIAH rats. Depression-related behavior was intensified by the unpredictable stress in young animals, whereas the long-lasting effect was observed only in adult hypertensive rats.