Primary school teachers in Québec suffer psychological distress, as shown by the Québec Health Survey (M. Gervais, 1993; Santè Québec, 1995). The authors applied and extended the French model (F. Guérin, A. Laville, F. Daniellou, J. Duraffourg, & A. Kerguelen, 1991) of analysis of work activity to observing classroom teaching (14 women in 10 classrooms for a total of 48 hr 24 min) to identify stressful elements. The authors observed a rapid sequence of actions, eye fixations of short duration, little physical or mental relaxation, multiple simultaneous activities, and uncomfortable temperature and humidity levels. Teachers use many strategies to teach, to create a learning environment, and to maintain attention in classrooms under adverse conditions. Examination of these strategies led to recommendations to improve relations between the teachers and their supervisors and to make the classroom an easier place to teach.
AIMS: Very few studies indicating that low-moderate alcohol consumption protects from myocardial infarction (MI) controlled for social support and working conditions, which could confound the findings. Therefore, a first aim was to study the risk of non-fatal and total MI in relation to volume of alcohol consumption and measures of social support and working conditions. A second aim was to analyse the impact of the volume of earlier alcohol use in abstainers. DESIGN: Data came from a case-control study, the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program (SHEEP), including first MI among Swedish citizens 45-70 years old. SETTING: Stockholm County 1992-94. PARTICIPANTS: There were 1095 cases of MI in men and 471 in women (928 and 372 were non-fatal), and 2339 living controls from the general population. MEASUREMENT: Information about alcohol use at different periods in life and job strain, social anchorage and life control besides pre-existing health problems, smoking, physical activity, socio-economic status and marital status was obtained by a questionnaire from the cases and the controls. FINDINGS: In multivariate logistic regression analyses, the relative risk for MI (especially non-fatal) was reduced among alcohol consumers. RR for non-fatal MI was 0.52 (95% confidence intervals 0.32, 0.85) in men with a consumption of 50-69.9 g 100% ethanol/day and 0.21 (95% confidence interval 0.06, 0.77) in women with a consumption of 30 g or more per day (reference category 0.1-5 g 100% ethanol/day). Men who were abstainers during the previous 1-10 years and with an earlier average consumption of 5-30 g 100% ethanol/day had a significantly lower relative risk compared to such abstainers with an earlier higher consumption. Earlier consumption among abstainers may also have an impact on gender differences in MI. Analyses showed positive interaction between abstention and low life-control in women, but only 4% of the female cases were due to this interaction. There were no other interactions between measures of alcohol use and social anchorage, life control and working situations. CONCLUSION: Alcohol use had a protective impact on MI, with little impact of job strain, social anchorage and life control, giving increased support for a protective impact of low-moderate alcohol use. The level of previous alcohol consumption among male 1-10-year-long abstainers influenced the risk of MI.
Although drinking patterns in women have received increased attention, few studies have focused on middle-aged women. Drinking patterns were investigated in a population sample of 513 Swedish women aged 50-59, and analysed in relation to social situation, and mental and physical health. The chi-square test was used to analyse differences in proportions. Variables showing significant differences were entered into a multivariate or multinomial logistic regression model. Abstainers and occasional drinkers had lower levels of education and more often regular medical control compared with weekly drinkers. Furthermore, abstainers more often had disability pension. Among women drinking alcohol, 56.6% affirmed binge drinking within the last year and 39.4% within the last month. Binge drinkers did not differ in terms of social situation, mental or physical health, compared with other drinkers. Drinking to relieve tension was affirmed by 7.2%. These women had more mental symptoms and less contact with friends compared with other drinkers; furthermore, they were more often binge drinkers. Binge drinking was common and health and social consequences of this drinking pattern in middle-aged women need to be further explored. Women drinking to relieve tension may need intervention for both drinking habits and mental health.
Long far after nuclear weapons tests the veterans of special risk subdivisions (SRS) had changes of humoral factors of nonspecific protection, concentration of immunoglobulins in blood serum, lymphocytes sensibleness to respiratory viruses, humoral and cellular autoimmune displacements, raise of turmonecrotic factor content. Some of the revealed changes (complement, lysocim, concentration of immunoglobulins) are bound up with elderly age of examined people and their diseases. The other changes (autoimmune displacements, sensibleness to respiratory viruses) can be bound up with nuclear weapons tests. Some immunology changes occur because of radiation and non-radiation factors, a nervous shock being among them. Estimate of autoimmune changes is important for the health characteristic 20-40 years after nuclear tests and possible radiation influence. The role of such changes is significant in a sick rate of the veterans of special risk subdivisions.
The study examined the relationship between migration and the incidence of emotional disorders among 568 young Third World immigrants in Norway. Participants were 10-17 years of age. Using a questionnaire, acculturative stress (i.e., change in health status as a result of acculturation) was found to exist among the children, although having to migrate or being born in Norway was not related to mental health status. A stressful acculturative experience (i.e., difficulties in initiating friendship with Norwegian peers) alone could account for only 1% of the self reported emotional disorders. Incidence of depressive tendencies, poor self image, and psychological and somatic symptoms were found to be related to close and supportive parents, marginality, integration, gender and the number of friends the child had. These accounted for between 12 and 15% of the explained variance. The paper theoretically discusses how these factors may be related to acculturative stress, and recommends them as starting points for a primary intervention program to reduce emotional disorders among these children.
Accumulation of adverse socioeconomic position over the life course is assumed to increase the risk of myocardial infarction.
To analyse in detail whether the accumulation of adverse socioeconomic position over the life course increases the risk of myocardial infarction, using yearly information on individual socioeconomic position from birth to disease onset.
Case-control study of risk factors for incident myocardial infarction (Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program).
All Swedish citizens born during 1922-49 and living in Stockholm County during 1992-4.
550 female and 1204 male patients and 777 female and 1538 male controls. Every year in manual work was added to calculate a proportion of the whole life course spent in adverse socioeconomic position.
With increasing proportion of life spent in adverse socioeconomic position, we found an increasing risk of myocardial infarction. The relative risk of myocardial infarction was 2.36 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.79 to 3.11) for men and 2.54 (95% CI = 1.70 to 3.78) for women who, over the entire life course, had always been in adverse socioeconomic position compared with those who had never been in adversity. We also found a strong increase in risk from being in adversity for only a few years, indicating important selection processes.
Accumulated experience of adverse socioeconomic position over the entire life course increases the risk of myocardial infarction for men and women, but it is not a pure accumulation process as "how" and "when" the accumulation occurs also seems to have a role. The accumulation effect is partly mediated by the acquisition of health-damaging experiences.
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The aim of the study was to estimate the effect of the accumulation of major life events (MLE) in childhood and adulthood, in both the private and working domains, on risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Furthermore, we aimed to test the possible interaction between childhood and adult MLE and to investigate modification of these associations by educational attainment.
The study was based on 4,761 participants from the Copenhagen City Heart Study free of diabetes at baseline and followed for 10 years. MLE were categorized as 0, 1, 2, 3 or more events. Multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, education and family history of diabetes were used to estimate the association between MLE and T2DM.
In childhood, experiencing 3 or more MLE was associated with a 69% higher risk of developing T2DM (Odds Ratio (OR) 1.69; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.60, 3.27). The accumulation of MLE in adult private (p-trend = 0.016) and work life (p-trend = 0.049) was associated with risk of T2DM in a dose response manner. There was no evidence that experiencing MLE in both childhood and adult life was more strongly associated with T2DM than experiencing events at only one time point. There was some evidence that being simultaneously exposed to childhood MLE and short education (OR 2.28; 95% C.I. 1.45, 3.59) and work MLE and short education (OR 2.86; 95% C.I. 1.62, 5.03) was associated with higher risk of T2DM, as the joint effects were greater than the sum of their individual effects.
Findings from this study suggest that the accumulation of MLE in childhood, private adult life and work life, respectively, are risk factors for developing T2DM.
The central variables of stress, coping, and gambling severity were examined along three lines of inquiry. The first addressed whether adolescents with gambling problems reported a greater number of minor or major stressful (i.e., negative) life events relative to others. The second examined whether more with gambling problems employed less-effective coping styles, such as those characterized as less task- or solution-focused, and more emotion- or avoidance-focused coping. Finally, the third question explored whether adolescents' coping styles mediated the association between stress and gambling severity. Ranging from 11 to 20 years of age, 2,156 high-school students completed instruments assessing gambling involvement, gambling severity, stressful life events, and coping styles. Results indicated that, overall, adolescents with gambling-related problems reported more negative life events relative to social gamblers and non-gamblers. When negative life events were further separated into major and minor events, results revealed that problem gamblers reported more major negative life events but not more minor negative life events relative to others. Results indicated that adolescents with gambling-related problems used less task-focused coping, and more avoidance-focused coping. Males, but not females, who experience gambling-related problems reported using more emotion-focused coping strategies. Finally, emotion-oriented coping was found to mediate the relationship between negative life events and gambling severity. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.
This study assessed whether adolescents' socioeconomic background, health and health behaviours are associated with later risk of poisoning hospitalization.
A prospective cohort of 54,169 Finns aged 14-18 years was followed for an average of 10.6 years. The end-point of the study was poisoning hospitalization, death or termination of follow-up in 2001. The relationships of socioeconomic background, health and health behaviour characteristics with poisoning hospitalization were studied with adjusted Cox's proportional hazard model.
We identified 443 persons (0.8%) with a diagnosed poisoning leading to hospital admission. The mean age at the time of the poisoning hospitalization was 22.7 years. The strongest risk factors for poisoning hospitalization in males were more than three stress symptoms weekly (HR 1.9), poor school success (HR 1.9) and not living with both of the parents in adolescence (HR 1.8). In females, the strongest risk factors were more than three stress symptoms weekly (HR 2.1), poor school success (HR 2.2) and recurring drunkenness as drinking style (HR 1.7).
Poor school performance, health and health-compromising behaviour adopted in adolescence are associated with a poisoning hospitalization risk in adulthood. Daily smoking and recurring drunkenness were strongly associated with a later poisoning hospitalization.
The aim of this study is to examine the possible changes in depressive symptoms related to various adverse experiences, based on a three-year follow-up among adolescents.
All 10(th) graders invited to enter the youth section of the Oslo Health Study 2001 (n = 3,811) constituted a baseline of a longitudinal study. A high level of mental distress (Hscl-10 score = 1.85) according to the different life experiences was compared, at baseline (15 years) and follow-up (18 years).
All adverse experiences were associated with a high Hscl-10 score except parents not living together and death of a close person at 15 and 18 years for boys, and death of a close person at 18 years of age for girls. A development from high Hscl-10 score at baseline to low score at follow up was defined as recovery from mental distress. The proportion of the youth that had a high Hscl-10 score related to reporting adverse life experiences at age 15, followed by a low Hscl-10 score three years later proved to be between 44% and 89% among boys and between 16% and 31% among girls.
From a three year longitudinal perspective the recovery from mental distress is substantial and higher among boys than among girls. However, mental distress seems to persist in a considerable proportion of the adolescents. Consequently, it is insufficient to brush aside traumas and hurt and rely on a time healing process only.