We report on a novel arctic strain BM1 of a carotenogenic chlorophyte from a coastal habitat with harsh environmental conditions (wide variations in solar irradiance, temperature, salinity and nutrient availability) identified as Haematococcus pluvialis Flotow. Increased (25‰) salinity exerted no adverse effect on the growth of the green BM1 cells. Under stressful conditions (high light, nitrogen and phosphorus deprivation), green vegetative cells of H. pluvialis BM1 grown in BG11 medium formed non-motile palmelloid cells and, eventually, hematocysts capable of a massive accumulation of the keto-carotenoid astaxanthin with a high nutraceutical and therapeutic potential. Routinely, astaxanthin was accumulated at the level of 4% of the cell dry weight (DW), reaching, under prolonged stress, 5.5% DW. Astaxanthin was predominantly accumulated in the form of mono- and diesters of fatty acids from C16 and C18 families. The palmelloids and hematocysts were characterized by the formation of red-colored cytoplasmic lipid droplets, increasingly large in size and number. The lipid droplets tended to merge and occupied almost the entire volume of the cell at the advanced stages of stress-induced carotenogenesis. The potential application of the new strain for the production of astaxanthin is discussed in comparison with the H. pluvialis strains currently employed in microalgal biotechnology.
In this study, evaluation of genome instability in individuals exposed to chemical compounds included detection of the genetic polymorphism of some xenobiotic metabolic enzymes (CYP1A1, CYP1E1, PON1, GSTM1, GSTT1), as well as measurement of oxidative state chemiluminescent variables and the level of cytogenetic damage. According to the study, the level of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes shows a strong correlation with PON54 left allele and GSTM1 null genotype, and can be described by the polynomial function of blood plasma luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. The frequencies of micronuclei in buccal epithelium displayed a weak association with GSTT1 null genotype.
Since the time of global SARS-CoV-2 spread across the earth in February 2020, most of countries faced the problem of massive stress of their healthcare systems. In many cases, the structural stress was a result of incorrect allocation of medical care resources. In turn, this misallocation resulted from fear and apprehensions that superseded thorough calculations. A key role in exacerbating the healthcare sector overburdening was played by misleading information on the virus and disease caused by it. In the current paper, we study the situation in Russian healthcare system and advance recommendations how to avoid further crises.
(a) Surveying the medical personnel (231 doctors, 317 nurses and 355 ambulance medical workers of lower levels) in five hospitals and six ambulance centres in Moscow. (b) Content analysis of 3164 accounts in Russian segment of social networks (VKontakte, Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, Odnoklassniki); official and unofficial media (TV, informational webpages).
We revealed positive-feedback loop that threatened the sustainability of Russian care sector. The main knot was occupied by incorrect/exaggerated media coverage of COVID-19. General public scared by misinformation in media and social networks, started to panic. This negative social background undermined the productivity of a significant part of medical workers who were afraid of COVID-19 patients.
The most serious problems of Russian healthcare sector related to COVID-19 pandemic, were informational problems. The exaggerated information on COVID-19 had big negative influence upon Russian society and healthcare system, despite SARS-CoV-2 relatively low epidemiological hazard.
Mammals are subject to colonization by an astronomical number of mutualistic and commensal microorganisms on their environmental exposed surfaces. These mutualistic species build up a complex community, called the indigenous microbiota, which aid their hosts in several physiological activities. In this review, we show that the transition between a non-colonized and a colonized state is associated with modification on the pattern of host inflammatory and behavioral responsiveness. There is a shift from innate anti-inflammatory cytokine production to efficient release of proinflammatory mediators and rapid mobilization of leukocytes upon infection or other stimuli. In addition, host responses to hypernociceptive and stressful stimuli are modulated by indigenous microbiota, partly due to the altered pattern of innate and acquired immune responsiveness of the non-colonized host. These altered responses ultimately lead to significant alteration in host behavior to environmental threats. Therefore, host colonization by indigenous microbiota modifies the way the host perceives and reacts to environmental stimuli, improving resilience of the entire host-microorganism consortium to environmental stresses.
Oxidative stress increases during unloading in muscle from young adult rats. The present study examined the markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme gene and protein expressions in medial gastrocnemius muscles of aged and young adult (30 and 6 mo of age) Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats after 14 days of hindlimb suspension. Medial gastrocnemius muscle weight was decreased by approximately 30% in young adult and aged rats following suspension. When muscle weight was normalized to animal body weight, it was reduced by 12% and 22% in young adult and aged rats, respectively, after suspension. Comparisons between young adult and aged control animals demonstrated a 25% and 51% decline in muscle mass when expressed as absolute muscle weight and muscle weight normalized to the animal body weight, respectively. H(2)O(2) content was elevated by 43% while Mn superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) protein content was reduced by 28% in suspended muscles compared with control muscles exclusively in the aged animals. Suspended muscles had greater content of malondialdehyde (MDA)/4-hydroxyalkenals (4-HAE) (29% and 58% increase in young adult and aged rats, respectively), nitrotyrosine (76% and 65% increase in young adult and aged rats, respectively), and catalase activity (69% and 43% increase in young adult and aged rats, respectively) relative to control muscles. Changes in oxidative stress markers MDA/4-HAE, H(2)O(2), and MnSOD protein contents in response to hindlimb unloading occurred in an age-dependent manner. These findings are consistent with the hypotheses that oxidative stress has a role in mediating disuse-induced and sarcopenia-associated muscle losses. Our data suggest that aging may predispose skeletal muscle to increased levels of oxidative stress both at rest and during unloading.
We analysed relationship between the risk of onset of "unhealthy life" (defined as the onset of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, or diabetes) and longitudinal changes in body mass index, diastolic blood pressure, hematocrit, pulse pressure, pulse rate, and serum cholesterol in the Framingham Heart Study (Original Cohort) using the stochastic process model of human mortality and aging. The analyses demonstrate how decline in resistance to stresses and adaptive capacity accompanying human aging can be evaluated from longitudinal data. We showed how these components of the aging process, as well as deviation of the trajectories of physiological indices from those minimising the risk at respective ages, can lead to an increase in the risk of onset of unhealthy life with age. The results indicate the presence of substantial gender difference in aging related decline in stress resistance and adaptive capacity, which can contribute to differences in the shape of the sex-specific patterns of incidence rates of aging related diseases.
Drinking alcohol is an essential and commonplace part of life in Russia. Alcohol-related problems in the general population and among adolescents in particular has become a major public health concern. The problem cannot be solely explained by the frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption. The social determinants of drinking alcohol also need to be considered. These are the focus of the present investigation. The social determinants of drinking behaviour were assessed by self-reports (Social Context of Drinking Scale, Adolescent Alcohol Involvement Scale and Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index) in 387 secondary school students in Arkhangelsk, Russia. The factor structure for the Social Context of Drinking Scale was similar to that noted in respect of the original study [Thombs and Beck (1994) Health Education and Research 9, 13-22]. Significant gender differences in problem drinking and the social contexts of drinking were found. High intensity girl drinkers were likely to drink in most social contexts, whereas high intensity drinking boys were more likely to drink in the context of Stress Control. Furthermore, boy problem drinkers were more likely to drink in the context of School Defiance and Peer Acceptance, whereas girl problem drinkers tended to drink in the contexts of School Defiance and Stress Control. In general, the Social Context of Drinking Scale demonstrated a good ability to discriminate high from low intensity drinkers, and high from low problem drinkers. These results may provide useful information for targeted prevention programmes for adolescents.
To evaluate cardiovascular disease risk in First Nation youth with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) or obesity by comparing pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokines, markers of oxidative stress and the plasma phospholipid fatty acid profile.
Self-declared First Nation youth (12-15 yr) with T2DM (n = 24) as well as age-, gender-, and body mass index-matched controls (obese group; n = 19) and unmatched controls (control group; n = 34) were recruited from a pediatric diabetes clinic.
Plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha, ultrasensitive C-reactive protein, resistin, and total antioxidant status were not different among the three groups. Plasma total leptin, soluble leptin receptor, and free leptin were significantly higher in the T2DM group than the control group (p