The aim of this study is to determine if there has been a true, absolute, or apparent relative increase in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) survival for the last 2 decades.
All neonatal Bochdalek CDH patients admitted to an Ontario pediatric surgical hospital during the period when significant improvements in CDH survival was reported (from January 1, 1992, to December 31, 1999) were analyzed. Patient characteristics were assessed for CDH population homogeneity and differences between institutional and vital statistics-based population survival outcomes. SAS 9.1 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC) was used for analysis.
Of 198 cohorts, demographic parameters including birth weight, gestational age, Apgar scores, sex, and associated congenital anomalies did not change significantly. Preoperative survival was 149 (75.2%) of 198, whereas postoperative survival was 133 (89.3%) of 149, and overall institutional survival was 133 (67.2%) of 198. Comparison of institution and population-based mortality (n = 65 vs 96) during the period yielded 32% of CDH deaths unaccounted for by institutions. Yearly analysis of hidden mortality consistently showed a significantly lower mortality in institution-based reporting than population.
A hidden mortality exists for institutionally reported CDH survival rates. Careful interpretation of research findings and more comprehensive population-based tools are needed for reliable counseling and evaluation of current and future treatments.
Improvements in the clinical management of CDH have led to overall improved reported result from single institutions. However, population-based studies have highlighted a hidden mortality.
To explore the incidence in Sweden and to address the hidden mortality for CDH during a 27-year period in a population-based setting.
This is a population based cohort study that includes all patients diagnosed with CDH that were registered in the National Patient Register, the Medical Birth Register, the Register of Congenital Malformations and the Register for Causes of Death between 1987 and 2013. The mortality rates were calculated based on the number deaths divided by the number of live born cases. The hidden mortality was defined as the number of CDH cases that were not born (because of TOP or IUFD), cases of neonatal demise during birth or demise the same day of birth in patients who were in peripheral institutions and who never reached tertiary centers.
In total, 861 CDH patients were born in Sweden between 1987 and 2013, which corresponds to an incidence of 3.0 born CDH per 10,000 live births. When adding the cases of TOP and IUFD, the total incidence of CDH in Sweden was 3.5/10,000 live born. The mortality rate between 1987 and 2013 was 36%: 44% during the first time period 1987-1999 and 27% in the later period 2000-2013. The hidden mortality in the second period was 30%, resulting in a total mortality rate of 45%.
The incidence of CDH during a 27-year period remained unchanged in the population. However, we observed a decrease in the prevalence because of the increasing numbers of TOP. A significant hidden mortality exists, with overall mortality rate of 45% for CDH in this population.
To investigate the association between advanced maternal age and stillbirth risks in first, second, third, and fourth births or more.
A population-based registry study including all women aged 25 years and older with singleton pregnancies at 28 weeks of gestation and later gave birth in Sweden from 1990 to 2011; 1,804,442 pregnancies were analyzed. In each parity group, the risk of stillbirth at age 30-34 years, 35-39 years, and 40 years and older compared with age 25-29 years was investigated by logistic regression analyses adjusted for sociodemographic factors, smoking, body mass index, history of stillbirth, and interdelivery interval. Also, two low-risk groups were investigated: women with a high level of education and nonsmoking women of normal weight.
Stillbirth rates increased by maternal age: 25-29 years 0.27%; 30-34 years 0.31%; 35-39 years 0.40%; and 40 years or older 0.53%. Stillbirth risk increased by maternal age in first births. Compared with age 25-29 years, this increase was approximately 25% at 30-34 years and doubled at age 35 years. In second, third, and fourth birth or more, stillbirth risk increased with maternal age in women with a low and middle level of education, but not in women with high education. In nonsmokers of normal weight, the risk in second births increased from age 35 years or older and in third births or more from age 30 years or older.
Advanced maternal age is an independent risk factor for stillbirth in nulliparous women. This age-related risk is reduced or eliminated in parous women, possibly as a result of physiologic adaptations during the first pregnancy.
Advanced paternal age has been associated with a variety of rare conditions and diseases of great public health impact. An increased number of de novo point mutations in sperm with increasing age have been suggested as a mechanism, which would likely also affect fetal viability. We examined the association between paternal age and stillbirth rate in a large nationwide cohort. We identified all pregnancies in Denmark from 1994 to 2010 carried to a gestational age of at least 22 completed weeks (n = 944,031) as registered in national registers and linked to individual register data about the parents. The hazard ratio of stillbirth according to paternal age was estimated, adjusted for maternal age in 1-year categories, year of outcome, and additionally parental educational levels. The relative rate of stillbirth (n = 4946) according to paternal age was found to be J-shaped with the highest hazard ratio for fathers aged more than 40 years when paternal age was modelled using restricted cubic splines. When modelled categorically, the adjusted hazard ratios of stillbirth were as follows:
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This study aimed to assess whether adolescents have an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes (APO) compared to adult women. We used data on 43,327 births from the population-based Arkhangelsk County Birth Registry, Northwest Russia, for 2012-2014. The perinatal outcomes included stillbirth, preterm birth (
Department of Women's and Children's Health, Division of Reproductive and Perinatal Health Care, and the Department of Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset (KI SÖS), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, and the Centre for Clinical Research, Dalarna, Falun, Sweden; and the Center for Evidence Based Practice, Faculty of Health Sciences, Bergen University College, and the Department of Clinical Science, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
To investigate the association between advanced maternal age and adverse pregnancy outcomes and to compare the risks related to advanced maternal age with those related to smoking and being overweight or obese.
A population-based register study including all nulliparous women aged 25 years and older with singleton pregnancies at 22 weeks of gestation or greater who gave birth in Sweden and Norway from 1990 to 2010; 955,804 women were analyzed. In each national sample, adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of very preterm birth, moderately preterm birth, small for gestational age, low Apgar score, fetal death, and neonatal death in women aged 30-34 years (n=319,057), 35-39 years (n=94,789), and 40 years or older (n=15,413) were compared with those of women aged 25-29 years (n=526,545). In the Swedish sample, the number of additional cases of each outcome associated with maternal age 30 years or older, smoking, and overweight or obesity, respectively, was estimated in relation to a low-risk group of nonsmokers of normal weight and aged 25-29 years.
The adjusted OR of all outcomes increased by maternal age in a similar way in Sweden and Norway; and the risk of fetal death was increased even in the 30- to 34-year-old age group (Sweden n=826, adjusted OR 1.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13-1.37; Norway n=472, adjusted OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.12-1.41). Maternal age 30 years or older was associated with the same number of additional cases of fetal deaths (n=251) as overweight or obesity (n=251).
For the individual woman, the absolute risk for each of the outcomes was small, but for society, it may be significant as a result of the large number of women who give birth after the age of 30 years.
The association between maternal anemia and pregnancy outcomes has been investigated in many epidemiological studies, but the findings remain inconsistent. In our previous study based on the Kola Birth Registry (KBR), we observed that maternal anemia defined as hemoglobin concentration below 120 g/l was negatively associated with the risk of stillbirth and preterm birth and positively associated with foetal growth (1). However, our anemic group was heterogeneous and included women with hemoglobin between 110 and 120 g/l, which cannot be classified as anemic according to the WHO. This study aims to achieve a more detailed analysis of different maternal hemoglobin concentrations and their associations with stillbirth, preterm birth and foetal growth in using the data from the KBR.
A common underlying mechanism with a genetic component could link pregnancy losses with vascular disease. We examined whether pregnancy losses (miscarriages and stillbirths) and atherosclerotic outcomes co-aggregated in families.
Using Danish registers, we identified women with pregnancies in 1977-2008, and their parents (>1 million) and brothers (>435 000). We followed parents for incident ischaemic heart disease (IHD), myocardial infarction (MI), and cerebrovascular infarction (CVI), and brothers for a broader combined atherosclerotic endpoint. Using Cox regression, we estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for each outcome by history of pregnancy loss in daughters/sisters. Overall, parents whose daughters had 1, 2, and =3 miscarriages had 1.01 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.99-1.04], 1.07 (95% CI 1.02-1.11), and 1.10 (95% CI 1.02-1.19) times the rate of MI, respectively, as parents whose daughters had no miscarriages. For parents with =3 daughters, the HRs were 1.12 (95% CI 1.02-1.24), 1.29 (95% CI 1.13-1.48), and 1.33 (95% CI 1.12-1.57). Effect magnitudes did not differ for fathers and mothers. We observed similar patterns for IHD and CVI (parents) and the atherosclerotic endpoint (brothers). Parents whose daughters had stillbirths had 1.14 (95% CI 1.05-1.24) and 1.07 (95% CI 0.96-1.18) times the rates of MI and CVI, respectively, as parents whose daughters had no stillbirths.
Certain pregnancy losses and atherosclerotic diseases in both heart and brain may have a common aetiologic mechanism. Women in families with atherosclerotic disease may be predisposed to pregnancy loss; conversely, pregnancy losses in first-degree relatives may have implications for atherosclerotic disease risk.
Since 2004-2007, national guidelines and recommendations have been developed for the management of extremely preterm births in Sweden. If and how more uniform management has affected infant survival is unknown.
To compare survival of extremely preterm infants born during 2004-2007 with survival of infants born during 2014-2016.
All births at 22-26 weeks' gestational age (n?=?2205) between April 1, 2004, and March 31, 2007, and between January 1, 2014, and December 31, 2016, in Sweden were studied. Prospective data collection was used during 2004-2007. Data were obtained from the Swedish pregnancy, medical birth, and neonatal quality registries during 2014-2016.
Delivery at 22-26 weeks' gestational age.
The primary outcome was infant survival to the age of 1 year. The secondary outcome was 1-year survival among live-born infants who did not have any major neonatal morbidity (specifically, without intraventricular hemorrhage grade 3-4, cystic periventricular leukomalacia, necrotizing enterocolitis, retinopathy of prematurity stage 3-5, or severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia).
During 2004-2007, 1009 births (3.3/1000 of all births) occurred at 22-26 weeks' gestational age compared with 1196 births (3.4/1000 of all births) during 2014-2016 (P?=?.61). One-year survival among live-born infants at 22-26 weeks' gestational age was significantly lower during 2004-2007 (497 of 705 infants [70%]) than during 2014-2016 (711 of 923 infants [77%]) (difference, -7% [95% CI, -11% to -2.2%], P?=?.003). One-year survival among live-born infants at 22-26 weeks' gestational age and without any major neonatal morbidity was significantly lower during 2004-2007 (226 of 705 infants [32%]) than during 2014-2016 (355 of 923 infants [38%]) (difference, -6% [95% CI, -11% to -1.7%], P?=?.008).
Among live births at 22-26 weeks' gestational age in Sweden, 1-year survival improved between 2004-2007 and 2014-2016.
CommentIn: JAMA. 2019 Mar 26;321(12):1163-1164 PMID 30912817