A less traumatic and safe way was sought for the superlobular bronchus and artery occlusion that permits the hemostatic effect to be quickly achieved, the risk and duration of the operation to be minimized. The approach consists in the use of transsternal approach instead of a conventional intercostal approach in 5 patients with superlobular fibrotic cavernous pulmonary tuberculosis, its positive effects being lessening of traumatic harm, improving of safety of operation, together with reduction of intraoperative time.
The Department of Thoracic Surgery at the University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden, has actively followed up infectious complications of cardiac surgery since 1989. The aim of this study was to investigate whether changes occurred during the 1990s in the appearance and the management of deep infections. This was done by studying patients undergoing surgical revision of infected wounds. We studied 42 patients during 1990-94 and 49 during 1997-98 (total number of operations in these periods, 3075 and 1646, respectively). Pre-operative and intra-operative variables were recorded for the two patient populations. The proportion of cardiac surgery procedures followed by a surgical revision for an infection in the sternal wound increased between the two periods (1.4% vs. 3.0%). Variables associated with the surgical procedures preceding the infection remained unchanged. In the later period, treatment was started earlier (64 vs. 24 days), and the length of antibiotic treatment was decreased (115 vs. 72 days). The incidence of osteomyelitis of the sternal bone was lower (61% vs. 27%). It appears that as the proportion of patients undergoing surgical revision increased, management of the infections became more effective, with aggressive surgical and antibiotic treatment policies and shorter treatment periods. This indicates that in order to evaluate the overall impact of measures designed to reduce infections after cardiac surgery, not only the incidence of infection needs to be followed up but other factors also need to be taken into account.
Prophylactic local application of collagen-gentamicin sponges for prevention of sternal wound infections (SWI) after cardiac surgery has been used routinely in risk patients for several years at our center. However, a recent US study failed to show a significant reduction in SWI with the prophylaxis. Therefore, a systematic reevaluation of the effect of local collagen gentamicin was conducted.
A complete follow-up of all cardiac surgery patients 2 months postoperatively was achieved. All SWIs were recorded. The effect of the prophylaxis was analyzed, and differences in risk factors were compensated for using multiple logistic regression analyses and Coarsened Exact Matching (CEM).
A total of 950 patients were included. Established risk factors for SWI were confirmed. The use of collagen-gentamicin prophylaxis was independently associated with a highly significant reduction in SWI (odds ratio [OR] = 0.30, 95% confidence interval = 0.16 to 0.57; p
In a previous randomized controlled trial (LOGIP trial) the addition of local collagen-gentamicin reduced the incidence of postoperative sternal wound infections (SWI) compared with intravenous prophylaxis only. Consequently, the technique with local gentamicin was introduced in clinical routine at the two participating centers. The aim of the present study was to re-evaluate the technique regarding the prophylactic effect against SWI and to detect potential shifts in causative microbiological agents over time. All patients in this prospective two-center study received prophylaxis with application of two collagen-gentamicin sponges between the sternal halves in addition to routine intravenous antibiotics. All patients were followed for 60 days postoperatively. From January 2007 to May 2008, 1359 patients were included. The 60-day incidences of any SWI was 3.7% and of deep SWI 1.5% (1.0% mediastinitis). Both superficial and deep SWI were significantly reduced compared with the previous control group (OR=0.34 for deep SWI, P
Surgical sites infections are very expensive and the total costs for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery followed by deep sternal wound infection (DSWI) with conventional therapy are estimated to be 2.8 times that for normal, CABG surgery. Promising results have been reported with vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) therapy in patients with DSWI. This study presents the cost of VAC therapy in patients with DSWI after CABG surgery.
Thirty-eight CABG patients with DSWI, between 2001 and 2005, were treated with VAC therapy. The cost of surgery, intensive care, ward care, laboratory tests and other costs were analyzed.
No three-month mortality or recurrent infection was observed. The average cost of CABG procedure and treatment of DSWI was 2.5 times higher than the mean cost of CABG alone. No significant correlations were found between the preoperative EuroSCORE and the cost of DSWI therapy.
VAC therapy for patients who underwent CABG surgery followed by DSWI seems to be cost effective, and has low mortality rate.
Seven percent of the United States population is diabetic. However, diabetics are two to five times more likely to develop cardiovascular disease and therefore populate 30% of open heart procedures in this country. In addition, it has been well documented that diabetic cardiac surgery patients are further disadvantaged with worse outcomes following those procedures. This has been termed the "Diabetic Disadvantage." To benchmark these specific disadvantages, we evaluated the short- and long-term outcomes for diabetics and nondiabetics undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), CABG/valve, and aortic or mitral valve replacement surgery before the broader acceptance and use of intravenous insulin infusions in this patient population in 2001. All such patient records (n = 1,369,961) from the Society of Thoracic Surgeons national database operated on between 1990 and 2000 were assessed for short-term outcomes. Ten-year survival was evaluated among 36,835 patients from the Northern New England Cardiovascular Disease Study Group longitudinal registry. The diabetic population was found to have higher rates of 30-day mortality, deep sternal wound infection, stroke, and longer length of stay than the nondiabetic population. In addition, diabetic patients had approximately two-fold worse 10-year survival. All differences were statistically significant (P
CONTEXT: Despite the routine use of prophylactic systemic antibiotics, sternal wound infection still occurs in 5% or more of cardiac surgical patients and is associated with significant excess morbidity, mortality, and cost. The gentamicin-collagen sponge, a surgically implantable topical antibiotic, is currently approved in 54 countries. A large, 2-center, randomized trial in Sweden reported in 2005 that the sponge reduced surgical site infection by 50% in cardiac patients. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that the sponge prevents infection in cardiac surgical patients at increased risk for sternal wound infection. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Phase 3 single-blind, prospective randomized controlled trial, 1502 cardiac surgical patients at high risk for sternal wound infection (diabetes, body mass index >30, or both) were enrolled at 48 US sites between December 21, 2007, and March 11, 2009. INTERVENTION: Single-blind randomization to insertion of 2 gentamicin-collagen sponges (total gentamicin of 260 mg) between the sternal halves at surgical closure (n = 753) vs no intervention (control group: n = 749). All patients received standardized care including prophylactic systemic antibiotics and rigid sternal fixation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary end point was sternal wound infection occurring through 90 days postoperatively as adjudicated by a clinical events classification committee blinded to study treatment group. The primary study comparison was done in the intent-to-treat population. Secondary outcomes included (1) superficial wound infection (involving subcutaneous tissue but not extending down to sternal fixation wires), (2) deep wound infection (involving the sternal wires, sternal bone, and/or mediastinum), and (3) score for additional treatment, presence of serous discharge, erythema, purulent exudate, separation of the deep tissues, isolation of bacteria, and duration of inpatient stay (ASEPSIS; minimum score of 0 with no theoretical maximum). RESULTS: Of 1502 patients, 1006 had diabetes (67%) and 1137 were obese (body mass index >30) (76%). In the primary analysis, there was no significant difference in sternal wound infection in 63 of 753 patients randomized to the gentamicin-collagen sponge group (8.4%) compared with 65 of 749 patients randomized to the control group (8.7%) (P = .83). No significant differences were observed between the gentamicin-collagen sponge group and the control group, respectively, in superficial sternal wound infection (49/753 [6.5%] vs 46/749 [6.1%]; P = .77), deep sternal wound infection (14/753 [1.9%] vs 19/749 [2.5%]; P = .37), ASEPSIS score (mean [SD], 1.9 [6.4] vs 2.0 [7.2]; P = .67), or rehospitalization for sternal wound infection (23/753 [3.1%] vs 24/749 [3.2%]; P = .87). CONCLUSION: Among US patients with diabetes, high body mass index, or both undergoing cardiac surgery, the use of 2 gentamicin-collagen sponges compared with no intervention did not reduce the 90-day sternal wound infection rate. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00600483.
This study evaluated the overall incidence, prognosis, and risk factors for microbiologically documented Candida deep sternal wound infection (DSWI) after cardiac operations.
A retrospective observational study was performed at Aalborg Hospital, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, from January 1999 through November 2006. Included were all 83 of 4222 cardiac surgical patients with microbiologically documented DSWI requiring surgical revision. Various potential risk factors in patients with Candida DSWI were compared with those of patients with non-Candida DSWI. We compared markers of morbidity, in-hospital mortality, and 1-year mortality to evaluate the prognosis of the disease.
DSWI developed in 2% of all patients, of whom, 17 (20.5%) had Candida DSWI, and 66 (79.5%) had non-Candida etiology. Candida was the primary causative organism in 11 of 17 Candida DSWI cases. No Candida DSWI was found during the first 3 years of the study. In-hospital and 1-year mortality were doubled in patients with Candida DSWI compared with patients with non-Candida DSWI. Candida DSWI was associated with significantly longer stay in the intensive care unit and need of prolonged mechanical ventilation. Risk factors for Candida etiology were Candida colonization in tracheal secretions or urine and reoperation before diagnosis of DSWI.
Candida was a frequent causative agent of DSWI in our series and was associated with a very high morbidity and mortality. Cardiothoracic patients on mechanical ventilation when colonized with Candida were identified as a high-risk population for subsequent development of Candida DSWI.
Comment In: Ann Thorac Surg. 2009 Dec;88(6):190919932260