The problem of characterising more specifically the cognitive requirements involved in subtests from standardised measures of intelligence represents a main problem in the research on exceptional populations. A new way of classifying tests of mental abilities is presented. Rather than focusing on the content of a given test, the present classification system focuses on their structures. The classification system is applied to the WISC-R (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Revised, Wechsler, 1974). It will be used to interpret the IQ-profiles of a clinically defined sample of reading impaired children (N = 82). The basic finding of the study is that the structural complexity of a subtest influences the tests results of reading impaired children. This influence is interpreted as a consequence of poor procedural knowledge; i.e., poor knowledge about how to organise complex sets of data. It is suggested that teaching of metacognitive strategies could be an aid for reading impaired children.
Cohen syndrome (Mendelian Inheritance in Man [MIM] no. 216550) is a rare, autosomal-recessive inherited disorder with mental retardation and a typical appearance. The condition is relatively common in Finland where 35 patients have been diagnosed. We studied 22 patients in detail, obtaining anthropometric measurements of the head and face, and cephalometric radiographs of 14 patients (14-57 years of age). Measurements of patients were compared to population norms and matched controls. Anthropometric analysis confirmed and quantified the previously described syndrome features: small head size [-4 standard deviations (SD)], with varying cephalic index. Width of the upper face was close to normal, but width of the lower face was small. Philtrum length was shorter than in healthy controls (p = 0.0039 in females and p = 0.0014 in males). The measurements from standardized radiographs revealed short cranial base dimensions (-2.2 and -2.6 SD), but normal cranial base angles. Prognathism of jaws was within normal limits. Reduced head size (microcephaly), short philtrum and small cranial base dimensions are essential features in Cohen syndrome. In addition, most patients had forward-inclined upper incisors and maxillary prognathia. We conclude that exact measurements mostly confirmed the Cohen syndrome description based previously on clinical impression.
The aim of this study was to analyze possible differences in the use of ambulance service between densely and sparsely populated areas.
This study was designed as a 2-step consecutive study that included the ambulance service in 4 different areas with different geographical characteristics. A specific questionnaire was distributed to the enrolled ambulance services. Completion of one questionnaire was required for each ambulance mission, that is, 1 per patient, during the study periods. For calculations of P values, geographic area was treated as a 4-graded ordered variable, from the most densely populated to the most sparsely populated (ie, urban-suburban-rural-remote rural area). Statistical tests used were Mann-Whitney U test and Spearman rank statistic, when appropriate. All P values are 2 tailed and considered significant if below .01.
The medical status of the patients in the prehospital care situation was more often severe in the sparsely populated areas. In addition, drugs were more often used in the ambulances in these areas. In the sparsely populated areas, ambulance use was more frequently judged as the appropriate mode of transportation compared with the more densely populated areas.
Our study suggests that the appropriateness of the use of ambulance is not optimal. Furthermore, our data suggest that geographical factors, that is, population density, is related to inappropriate use. Thus, strategies to improve the appropriateness of ambulance use should probably take geographical aspects into consideration.
Stroke, a disease with severe consequences for patients and their families, often lead to psychosocial stress, and a decline in the quality of life (QoL) among carers. Predicting the QoL is essential in the development of effective nursing support interventions.
The aim of the present study was to identify predicting factors for the general QoL among spouses of stroke patients, and to determine whether these predictors change during the first year after the patient's stroke event.
One hundred spouses were followed three times during 1 year regarding QoL, own illness, economic situation, well being, life situation, sense of coherence, social network and the patients' ability in activities of daily living (ADL). Stepwise multiple linear regression analyses were conducted for the baseline, 6- and 12-month assessments respectively, with the present QoL as the dependent variable.
Over time during the first year after the patients' stroke event, there were significant differences in the spouses perceived general QoL. Life situation and economic situation were the only predictors of the spouses' QoL, which emerged during the entire year after the patient's stroke event, while well being, education, own illness, social network and ADL ability (patient) emerged at one or two occasions.
The psychosocial factors -- life situation, well being, social network, education and economy -- are important in predicting QoL among spouses of stroke patients, and these predicting factors change over time. Determining the predictors at an early stage, and continuously over time, will help to focus clinical nursing interventions on the spouses' changing needs.
Seven methods of estimating socio-economic status (SES) were compared, including four based on data specific to individuals (Blishen, Pineo-Porter, British Registrar General, Hollingshead) and three based on the average characteristics of the postal code area in which people live (income alone, education alone, income and education combined). Data from the files of 151 patients undergoing in vitro fertilization were used. The four individual scales were highly correlated among themselves (Spearman's correlation coefficient between 0.6 and 0.9) but only moderately correlated with the measures based on postal code (Spearman's correlation coefficient between 0.2 and 0.3).
Little is known about the cost of home-based rehabilitation programs in Quebec, Canada. The objective of this pilot project was to test a cost estimation methodology in the context of rehabilitation services delivered at home and to provide preliminary data on the costs for lower limb orthopedic surgery patients. This pilot study examined a short-term home care program for adults, aged 65 and over who returned home after lower limb surgery and required rehabilitation services. Efficacy was determined as the functional autonomy changes between admission and discharge from home rehabilitation program, as measured by the functional autonomy measurement system (SMAF). Costs of professionals, including direct and indirect time related to the intervention, were also determined in order to document cost-effectiveness of the program. Eighteen subjects were recruited. From those, 14 had complete data available for the analysis. The result shows that costs related to the combined natural improvement and the effect of the home-based rehabilitation program were CAN dollars 419 per unit of change of functional autonomy. The results of this pilot study confirm the feasibility of the cost estimation methodology for a home-based rehabilitation program.
A number of accident characteristics of bus crashes are analyzed in relation to each other using data from 2237 accident involvements in the city of Uppsala (Sweden) during the years 1986-2000. The breakdown of accidents into sub-categories show, for example, that injury was common in intersection accidents, that bus stops present large risk for shunts and side contacts, while single vehicle accidents were seldom preceded by the loss of control or a skid. The treatment of accident data is discussed in terms of methodology, statistics and data reduction strategies.
This study examined whether people adhered to the recognition heuristic (i.e., inferred that a recognized hockey player had more total career points than an unrecognized player) and whether using this heuristic could yield accurate decisions. On paired comparisons, having participants report whether they recognized each player plus any knowledge they had about each player permitted players to be classified as either unrecognized (UR), merely recognized (MR), or recognized with additional knowledge (RK), thus producing six possible trial types. Participants adhered to the recognition heuristic on 95% of MR-UR trials and were accurate on 81% of those trials. They chose the recognized player on 98% of RK-UR trials, yielding 94% accuracy. Women had less knowledge and recognized fewer players than men, yet they were nearly as accurate as men. Future research should examine the conditions under which the recognition heuristic is an adaptive strategy.
To study the associations between sleep quality/quantity and performance in auditory/visual working memory tasks of different load levels.
Sixty schoolchildren aged 6 to 13 years from normal school classes voluntarily participated. Actigraphy measurement was done during a typical school week for 72 consecutive hours. It was timed together with the working memory experiments to obtain information on children's sleep during that period. The n-back task paradigm was used to examine auditory and visual working memory functions.
Lower sleep efficiency and longer sleep latency were associated with a higher percentage of incorrect responses in working memory tasks at all memory load levels (partial correlations, controlling for age, all p values