The occurrence of abscess disease, caseous lymphadenitis, and pulmonary adenomatosis in sheep in Denmark is reported for the first time. Subcutaneous abscesses were observed in imported 4- to 5-month-old lambs of the Lacaune breed 10 days after arrival in Denmark. Abscesses were mostly located in the head, neck and shoulder regions close to the regional lymph nodes. Bacteriological examinations revealed growth of Staphylococcus aureus ssp. anaerobius in all animals with subcutaneously located abscesses containing a viscous white-yellow odourless mass. In addition, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis was isolated from abscesses in one animal and lesions consistent with pulmonary adenomatosis were found in four animals.
Conclusions Patients with symptomatic perforations of the nasal septum had a high prevalence of S. aureus in the nasal mucosa. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis revealed a high genetic heterogeneity of S. aureus among both patients and controls. This indicates that presence of different strains of S. aureus can maintain a chronic inflammation in symptomatic nasal septal perforations. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the microbial flora around nasal septal perforations in patients having severe symptoms regarding bleeding, obstruction, and crustation associated with their perforation. Methods Twenty-five patients with untreated symptomatic nasal septal perforations were included. For culture, swabs around the perforations were collected. Bacteria were identified with standard laboratory techniques including a MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer. Epidemiological analysis was done using PFGE protocols. Bacteriological data were compared with data from a healthy control group. Results Staphylococcus aureus was present in the mucosa surrounding the nasal perforation significantly more often (p?
Bacterial infection with Staphylococcus aureus is a common complication of atopic dermatitis (AD). The incidence of community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus infection (MRSA) in the AD population is unknown.
This study aimed to assess the prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA in pediatric patients with AD, to compare disease severity, and to characterize the clonal diversity of the isolates.
We carried out a prospective, cross-sectional study of 200 patients with AD. The severity of AD was defined as mild, moderate, or severe depending on a composite AD severity score. A swab was taken from the nares of each patient and another from affected skin or folds. Genotyping of all S. aureus isolates was conducted by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the S. aureus protein A (spa) gene.
According to the severity score, 66.5% of subjects were ranked as having mild AD, 29.5% as having moderate and 4% as having severe AD. Staphylococcus aureus colonization was seen in 61.5% of all patients, represented by 43.7% of skin swabs and 48% of nares swabs. Only one of the isolations represented MRSA. Older age and higher AD severity scores were associated with S. aureus colonization (P = 0.03 and P
A large healthcare-associated epidemic mainly caused by one methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain broke out in Pirkanmaa County, Finland, in 2001. This study describes the impact of infection control and screening practices on the epidemic.
The number of hospital-acquired (HA)-MRSA findings obtained from clinical and screening samples during the epidemic was calculated. Strains were typed by pulsed-field electrophoresis (PFGE) or spa typing. Strain type distribution was studied in relation to sample type, year of the epidemic and site of transmission. Several infection control interventions were launched stepwise and screening protocols were expanded.
A total of 4118 cases were identified during 2001-2014, of which 3527 were classified as HA. One strain (spa t067) dominated in the epidemic. HA-MRSA cases decreased constantly from the year 2011. The number of new HA-MRSA cases was 57% less in the year 2014 (n = 171) as compared with the year 2011 (n = 399). The proportion of the epidemic strain declined significantly over the years. Screening samples comprised 71% (2439/3527) and clinical samples 29% (1034/3527) of HA-MRSA findings. The number of HA-MRSA cases found from clinical samples started to decrease when screening was expanded. An increase in hand-rub consumption was associated with a decrease in transmissions in Tampere University Hospital (TAUH).
Implementation of universal screening together with several other interventions is effective in containing an MRSA epidemic. The proportion of other than Pirkanmaa epidemic (PE)-MRSA strain findings increased throughout the period, indicating the changing epidemiology of MRSA.
Rapid tests for detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage are important to limit the transmission of MRSA in the health care setting. We evaluated the performance of the BD GeneOhm MRSA real-time PCR assay using a diverse collection of MRSA isolates, mainly from Copenhagen, Denmark, but also including international isolates, e.g., USA100-1100. Pure cultures of 349 MRSA isolates representing variants of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) types I to V and 103 different staphylococcal protein A (spa) types were tested. In addition, 53 methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus isolates were included as negative controls. Forty-four MRSA isolates were undetectable; of these, 95% harbored SCCmec type IVa, and these included the most-common clone in Copenhagen, spa t024-sequence type 8-IVa. The false-negative MRSA isolates were tested with new primers (analyte-specific reagent [ASR] BD GeneOhm MRSA assay) supplied by Becton Dickinson (BD). The ASR BD GeneOhm MRSA assay detected 42 of the 44 isolates that were false negative in the BD GeneOhm MRSA assay. Combining the BD GeneOhm MRSA assay with the ASR BD GeneOhm MRSA assay greatly improved the results, with only two MRSA isolates being false negative. The BD GeneOhm MRSA assay alone is not adequate for MRSA detection in Copenhagen, Denmark, as more than one-third of our MRSA isolates would not be detected. We recommend that the BD GeneOhm MRSA assay be evaluated against the local MRSA diversity before being established as a standard assay, and due to the constant evolution of SCCmec cassettes, a continuous global surveillance is advisable in order to update the assay as necessary.
Two follow-up studies of a positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) finding in the 2008 European Union baseline survey on MRSA in pig herds were performed to gain more knowledge about the epidemiology of the particular MRSA type, a known human type (ST8/t008), among pigs. Two persons on a Norwegian farm in the study were found to be MRSA carriers, and human-to-animal transmission was suspected. In the first follow-up study, all pigs (n ?=? 346) were sampled by taking nasal swabs. A pooled sample from 5 individual pigs housed together in a single pen, and a dust sample from the equipment in the same room, were positive. Dust samples from a building housing MRSA-negative animals were negative. The MRSA was not detected in the second follow-up, after removing positive animals from the farm and cleaning and disinfecting. A low MRSA occurrence among the animals was found, suggesting that MRSA ST8/t008 may be less able to colonize and persist in pig holdings compared with more host-adapted S. aureus strains.
We here report on the development of a novel multiplex PCR with product detection in a Luminex 100 suspension array system. The assay covers the nine most important bacterial and viral pathogens found in Danish meningitis patients. The microorganisms include Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, and varicella-zoster virus. The study was based on 1,187 samples, of which 55 were found to be positive by PCR. The assay was found to have an excellent sensitivity and an excellent specificity compared to the results of a "gold standard," defined by routine laboratory tests, for the two most important pathogens, S. pneumoniae (95 and 99.1%, respectively) and N. meningitidis (100 and 99.7%, respectively). The method provides a valuable supplement to the traditional microscopy and culture of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples in a routine diagnostic setting, and results can be available within 1 workday. The method is suitable for use for the initial screening and identification of nine important microorganisms in CSF samples from patients with suspected meningitis. Compared to microscopy and culture of CSF, this rapid and sensitive method will support physicians with the selection of the appropriate antimicrobial agents and the initiation of timely treatment in the absence of live microorganisms in the CSF.
AIMS: To investigate the presence of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus in bulk milk and in a selection of raw milk products. METHODS AND RESULTS: Samples of bovine (n = 220) and caprine (n = 213) bulk milk, and raw milk products (n = 82) were analysed for S. aureus. Isolates were tested for staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) production (SEA-SED) by reversed passive latex agglutination and for SE genes (sea-see, seg-sej) by multiplex PCR. Staphylococcus aureus was detected in 165 (75%) bovine and 205 (96.2%) caprine bulk milk samples and in 31 (37.8%) raw milk product samples. Enterotoxin production was observed in 22.1% and 57.3% of S. aureus isolates from bovine and caprine bulk milk, respectively, while SE genes were detected in 52.5% of the bovine and 55.8% of the caprine bulk milk isolates. SEC and sec were most commonly detected. A greater diversity of SE genes were observed in bovine vs caprine isolates. CONCLUSIONS: Staphylococcus aureus seems highly prevalent in Norwegian bulk milk and isolates frequently produce SEs and contain SE genes. Enterotoxigenic S. aureus were also found in raw milk products. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Staphylococcus aureus in Norwegian bovine and caprine bulk milk may constitute a risk with respect to staphylococcal food poisoning from raw milk products.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of healthcare-associated (HA), community-associated (CA) and livestock-associated (LA) infections. Recently, the discovery of human and bovine MRSA isolates carrying a new mecA gene homologue, mecA(LGA251) (now designated mecC), has caused concern because they are not detected by conventional, confirmatory tests for MRSA. Very little is known about their frequency, epidemiology and possible transmission between livestock and humans. In this study, the epidemiology of the mecC isolates in Denmark was investigated by screening the national collections of MRSA cases (from 1988 onwards) and S. aureus bacteraemia cases (from 1958 onwards). Isolates carrying mecC were only recovered infrequently before 2003 (n = 2) but now seem to be increasing, with 110 cases in 2003-2011. Clinical data on mecC-carrying MRSA demonstrated that mecC-MRSA were primarily community-acquired (CA-MRSA) and affected persons typically living in rural areas, being older than other CA-MRSA patients. Among 22 cases in Region Zealand, four reported contact with cattle and sheep. Two of these persons lived on farms with livestock positive for mecC-carrying MRSA, sharing spa type (t843), MLVA (MT429) and PFGE pattern with the human isolates. These observations indicate that mecC-carrying MRSA can be exchanged between humans and ruminants.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possibility that the increased prevalence of fusidic acid-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Norway is caused by clonal spread. METHODS: Fusidic acid-resistant and -susceptible clinical isolates of S. aureus from patients with skin infections in the Norwegian county of Telemark and fusidic acid-resistant isolates from other parts of Scandinavia were compared. MICs of fusidic acid for bacterial isolates and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns were investigated. Prevalence data for fusidic acid-resistant S. aureus for the period 1992-2001 were obtained. RESULTS: The prevalence of fusidic acid resistance in S. aureus increased from 1992 to 2001. Eighty per cent of the resistant isolates investigated shared an identical PFGE pattern. The same pattern was found in fusidic acid-resistant isolates from other parts of Scandinavia. Fusidic acid-resistant S. aureus was typically found in impetigo bullosa-like skin disease in children mostly in the summer months. CONCLUSIONS: Fusidic acid resistance among S. aureus is increasing in Norway and is predominantly caused by one clone of S. aureus. The clone may spread further to other countries, and dissemination may be facilitated by extensive use of topical fusidic acid.