We analyzed the serum antibody responses against two Staphylococcus aureus fibrinogen binding proteins, the cell-bound clumping factor (Clf) and an extracellular fibrinogen binding protein (Efb). The material consisted of 105 consecutive serum samples from 41 patients suffering from S. aureus septicemia and 72 serum samples from healthy individuals. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed. Healthy individuals showed variable levels of antibodies against the studied antigens, and cutoff levels (upper 95th percentile) against these antigens were determined. No correlation was seen between serum antibody levels against Clf and Efb. In acute-phase samples 27% of patients showed positive antibody levels against Clf and 10% showed positive levels against Efb, while in convalescent-phase samples 63% (26 of 41) showed a positive serology against Clf and 49% (20 of 41) showed a positive serology against Efb. Antibody levels against Efb were significantly lower in the acute-phase sera than in sera from healthy individuals (P = 0. 002). An antibody response against Clf was most frequent in patients suffering from osteitis plus septic arthritis and from endocarditis (80% positive). The antibody response against Efb appeared to develop later in the course of disease. A possible biological effect of measured antibodies was demonstrated with the help of an inhibition ELISA, in which both high-titer and low-titer sera inhibited the binding of bacteria to fibrinogen. In conclusion, we have demonstrated in vivo production of S. aureus fibrinogen binding proteins during deep S. aureus infections and a possible diagnostic and prophylactic role of the corresponding serum antibodies in such infections.
The Russian experience with the preparation and clinical application of an antitoxic antistaphylococcal hyperimmune plasma and immunoglobulin is described. The immunotherapies were developed in the late 1960s and put into widespread use in the Soviet Union for the prophylaxis and treatment of sepsis, pneumonia, and other conditions caused by an epidemic of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
The aim of the work done was to improve treatment options for focal Staphylococcus-induced diseases in adolescents and children with the aid of adsorbed staphylococcal anatoxin (ASA) concurrently with low-intensive EHF therapy. Overall fifty patients aged 3 to 17 years with Staphylococcus infection in tonsils, nose, ears were kept under medical surveillance. ASA and EHF therapies were instituted according to the developed schemes of such therapies. Positive dynamics was shown of clinical picture and parameters characterizing humoral and cell-mediated immunity. There were no unfavourable side-effects. The proposed mode of treatment can, we believe, be widely used in a clinical setting.