Patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) may experience higher mortality of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) than patients without CHF due to insufficient cardiovascular responses during systemic infection. We investigated 90-day mortality in SAB patients with and without CHF.
Using population-based medical databases, we conducted a cohort study of all adult patients with community-acquired SAB (CA-SAB) in Northern Denmark, 2000-2011. Ninety-day mortality after SAB for patients with and without CHF was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Based on Cox regression analysis, we computed hazard ratios as estimates of mortality rate ratios (MRRs) overall and stratified by CHF-related conditions (e.g., cardiomyopathy and valvular heart disease), CHF severity (defined by daily dosage of loop-diuretics), and CHF duration while adjusting for potential confounders.
Among 2638 SAB patients, 390 (14.8 %) had a history of CHF. Ninety-day mortality was 45 % in patients with CHF and 30 % in patients without CHF, which yielded an adjusted MRR (aMRR) of 1.24 (95 % CI, 1.04-1.48). Compared to patients without CHF, the excess risk of death was most pronounced among patients with valvular heart disease (aMRR?=?1.73 (95 % CI, 1.26-2.38)), patients with daily loop-diuretic dosages of 81-159 mg/day (aMRR?=?1.55 (95 % CI, 1.11-2.14)) and =160 mg/day (aMRR?=?1.62 (95 % CI, 1.21-2.18)), and among patients with
The aim of this study was to determine if there was a long-term increase in glycopeptide minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values, MIC creep, among bloodstream isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis and S. haemolyticus isolated from patients with hematological malignancies. We conducted a retrospective single-center study where all positive blood cultures of S. epidermidis (n = 387) and S. haemolyticus (n = 19) isolated from patients with hematological malignancies during three decades, 1980 to 2009, were re-evaluated for the presence of reduced susceptibility to vancomycin and teicoplanin. Three different methods for the detection of reduced susceptibility to glycopeptides were used; standard Etest, macromethod Etest, and glycopeptide resistance detection (GRD) Etest. The median MIC value for vancomycin was 2 mg/L. MIC values for vancomycin and teicoplanin did not show any statistically significant increase during the study period. The presence of heterogeneously glycopeptide-intermediate staphylococci (hGIS) was analyzed among 405 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolates. hGIS were found in 31-45% of the CoNS isolates by the macromethod Etest and in 53-67% by the GRD Etest during the three decades. In conclusion, we did not observe any long-term glycopeptide MIC creep determined by the standard Etest, although a high and increasing proportion of heterogeneous vancomycin resistance was observed.
Patients with diabetes (DM) experience increased risk of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB), but the prognostic impact of diabetes in patients with SAB remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated 30-day all-cause mortality in patients with and without DM.
Population-based medical databases were used to conduct a cohort study of all adult patients with community-acquired SAB in Northern Denmark, 2000-2011. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we computed hazard ratios as estimates of 30-day mortality rate ratios (MRRs) among patients with and without DM. We further investigated whether the prognostic impact of DM differed among patients with and without recent preadmission healthcare contacts (within 30 days of the current hospitalization) and by age, sex, marital status, level of comorbidity, and DM-related characteristics (e.g., duration of DM and presence of DM complications).
Among 2638 SAB patients, 713 (27.0%) had DM. Thirty-day cumulative mortality was 25.8% in patients with DM and 24.3% in patients without DM, for an adjusted MRR (aMRR) of 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.84-1.20). In analyses with and without recent healthcare contacts, the corresponding aMRRs were 0.84 (95% CI, 0.62-1.14) and 1.13 (95% CI, 0.91-1.41), respectively. Compared to patients without DM, the aMRR was 0.94 (95% CI, 0.74-1.20) for male patients with DM and 1.13 (95% CI, 0.87-1.47) for female patients with DM. The prognostic influence of DM on mortality did not differ notably with age, level of comorbidity, or characteristics of patients with DM.
Patients with DM and community-acquired SAB did not experience higher 30-day mortality than patients without DM.
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