To review head injury in football through historical, anatomic, and physiological analysis.
We obtained data from a thorough review of the literature.
The reported incidence of concussion among high school football players dropped from 19% in 1983 to 4% in 1999. During the 1997 Canadian Football League season, players with a previous loss of consciousness in football were 6.15 times more likely to experience a concussion than players without a previous loss of consciousness (P
Managing an airway in an unconscious athlete is a lifesaving skill that may be made more difficult by the recent changes in protective equipment. Different airway maneuvers and techniques may be required to help ventilate an unconscious athlete who is wearing full protective equipment.
To assess the effectiveness of different airway maneuvers with football, ice hockey, and soccer players wearing full protective equipment.
University sports medicine clinic.
A total of 146 university varsity athletes, consisting of 62 football, 45 ice hockey, and 39 soccer players.
Athletes were assessed for different airway and physical characteristics. Three investigators then evaluated the effectiveness of different bag-valve-mask (BVM) ventilation techniques in supine athletes who were wearing protective equipment while inline cervical spine immobilization was maintained.
The effectiveness of 1-person BVM ventilation (1-BVM), 2-person BVM ventilation (2-BVM), and inline immobilization and ventilation (IIV) was judged by each investigator for each athlete using a 4-point rating scale.
All forms of ventilation were least difficult in soccer players and most difficult in football players. When compared with 1-BVM, both 2-BVM and IIV were deemed more effective by all investigators for all athletes. Interference from the helmet and stabilizer were common reasons for difficult ventilation in football and ice hockey players.
Sports medicine professionals should practice and be comfortable with different ventilation techniques for athletes wearing full equipment. The use of a new ventilation technique, termed inline immobilization and ventilation, may be beneficial, especially when the number of responders is limited.
Rollerskating is an activity that has become increasingly popular over the past several years among children and adults in Denmark. During a 7-month period in 1997, 300 in-line skaters and 107 roller skaters were treated in the Emergency Department, Esbjerg County Hospital. Of these, 60.4% had minor injuries (sprains, bruises, lacerations) and 39.6% fractures. There was no statistical significant difference in the types of injury between skater groups. The most common serious injury was fracture of the wrist, which occurred in both skater groups (25%, n=102). Almost all of the fractures of the wrist and elbow occurred among skaters who did not wear wrist or elbow guards Only 20% of the skaters used protective equipment. In-line skaters used protective equipment more often than did roller skaters. Of all accidents, 69% occurred on public roads (street and sidewalk).
To compare the effectiveness of the WIPSS mouth guard to other currently used mouth guards in the prevention of concussion injuries in athletes participating in varsity football and rugby.
: Multicenter, cluster-randomized, controlled trial comparing the WIPSS Brain-Pad mouth guard against the standard use mouth guard of choice. Teams were monitored by their respective athletic therapist, trainer, or sports physician for 1 playing season to diagnose and record incident concussion injuries and dental trauma. Concussion symptoms were also recorded at the time of injury.
Five Ontario universities.
University male football (394) and university male (129) and female (123) rugby athletes reporting to 2003 fall training camps.
The primary end point was the incidence of any diagnosed concussion events during the 2003 playing season as defined by the American Academy of Neurology Concussion Guidelines. Secondary endpoints included the incidence of dental trauma events and observed concussion symptoms.
There was no significant difference in the number of concussions observed between the intervention and control arms of this trial (P = 0.79; odds ratio, 1.06, in favor of controls; 95% CI, 0.51,
The purpose of the study was to document various aspects of concussion in Canadian Amateur hockey including demographics, causes, treatment, and prevention in order to guide future recommendations on how to reduce injury.
A detailed prospective and retrospective concussion history was obtained from British Columbia Junior Hockey League players over the course of two seasons (1998-2000).
Higher rates of concussions occur in games versus practice, and there was an overrepresentation of forwards injured versus defensemen or goaltenders. There was between 4.63 and 5.95 concussions per 1000 player/game hours with the average age of the first hockey-related concussion in the 15th year. The greatest cause of concussion was contact with the ice and/or the boards. Fighting was not a major cause of concussion, although other illegal actions such as elbowing were.
The primary recommendation to reduce the number and severity of concussions is to eliminate plays where there is a demonstrable intent to injure another player. Concussions in hockey are of considerable concern; however, there is now encouraging information with respect to the treatment of these injuries.
To examine the attitudes of players and coaches to the use of protective headgear, particularly with respect to the prevention of concussion.
A questionnaire designed to assess attitudes to headgear was administered to 63 players from four different Canadian teams, each representing a different level of play (high school, university, community club, national). In addition, coaches from all four levels were questioned about team policies and their personal opinions about the use of headgear to prevent concussion.
Although the players tended to believe that the headgear could prevent concussion (62%), the coaches were less convinced (33%). Despite the players' belief that headgear offers protection against concussion, only a minority reported wearing headgear (27%) and few (24%) felt that its use should be made mandatory. Common reasons for not wearing headgear were "its use is not mandatory", "it is uncomfortable", and "it costs too much".
Although most players in the study believe that rugby headgear may prevent concussion, only a minority reported wearing it. Coaches tended to be less convinced than the players that rugby headgear can prevent concussion.
Rugby is characterized by high-speed collisions among the players that predispose them to injuries, particularly to the head, neck, and spine.
To evaluate the effectiveness of current neurological injury prevention strategies in rugby union.
Systematic review in May 2010. We assessed the quality and content of studies that evaluated injury prevention strategies for rugby players and reported on neurological outcomes. We searched OVID Medline, OVID HealthStar, CINAHL, Sport Discus, PubMed, Scholar's Portal Physical Education Index, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Controlled Clinical Trials Register (CENTRAL) and conducted a manual search of the cited literature lists of each included study.
Ten articles are included in the review, with 2 of these assessing both headgear and mouthguards. Four studies reported insignificant reductions in neurological injury with the use of headgear. The results of 4 studies on the effectiveness of mouthguards in preventing neurological injury were inconclusive. Four studies reported significant reductions in neurological injury after the implementation of nationwide multifaceted injury prevention strategies with a focus on education
There is limited evidence to support the effectiveness of mouthguards and headgear in reducing neurological injuries; however, system-wide, mandatory interventions are useful in reducing neurological injuries in rugby.
Limited studies have been done to assess head injury characteristics for children and youth soccer players in Canada.
To describe acute head injury characteristics in children and youth soccer players and identify the characteristics of patients who required hospital admission.
Analysis was based on the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP). Soccer-related head injuries amongst 5-19 year old children presenting at 16 hospital emergency departments during 1994-2004 were selected in the study. All head injury-related variables (nature of injury, mechanism of injury, location of play, soccer type and season of play) were stratified by age and sex. A logistic regression model, consisting of the injury-related variables, sex and age as the independent variables, was performed to examine the characteristics of those head-injured patients who required hospital admission.
Overall, there were 4720 head injury cases identified (15% of all soccer-related emergency department visits). The highest proportion of head injuries was amongst males (70%) and children aged 10-14 years (50%). Of head injury cases, 35% were superficial and/or open wounds, 28% minor head injuries, 11% concussions, 9% eye injuries and 5% fractures. The total number of cases that required hospital admission was 164 (3.5%). Based on logistic regression analysis, head-injured youth aged 15-19 years were almost two times more likely to be admitted to hospital than their younger counterparts (OR=2.2, 95% CI: 1.3-3.6). Compared to ball contact injuries, contact with structures/surfaces, other players/persons and other unspecified objects increased the odds of hospital admission at least by two-folds. Moreover, those who played unorganised soccer were significantly more likely to be admitted to the hospital as compared to those who played organised soccer (OR=1.7, 95% CI: 1.2-2.6). Finally, playing in the non-winter seasons had increased likelihood of hospital admissions.
Head injuries constituted a significant proportion of soccer-related injuries presenting to emergency departments. Future studies need to evaluate the nature and safety of the playing surfaces/turf and other structures on or around the field of play.
The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of eye injuries and orofacial traumas in floorball. In addition, the athletes' habits of wearing protective goggles and mouthguards was surveyed, and an assessment was made of the general level of knowledge amongst athletes and coaches about preventive and first aid measures after a dental trauma and the resulting consequences. The study was conducted by the same interviewer in Switzerland and Sweden during the 2009/2010 season using a standardized questionnaire. A total of 608 individuals (565 athletes and 43 coaches) belonging to the amateur and semi-professional leagues in the two countries were individually interviewed. Although 72.7% of all athletes had observed and 27.7% of field players had sustained an injury to the eye or its vicinity, only 25 athletes (4.9%) wore protective eyewear. Similarly, despite 31.7% of all players having observed a dental or jaw injury and 11.3% of interviewed field players having suffered one, only one athlete wore a mouthguard on a regular basis. Participants from Switzerland were significantly better informed than participants from Sweden with regard to first aid measures. The results of this study show that floorball has an equally high risk for dental trauma as handball. Further investigations of dental injuries in floorball would be valuable in order to provide players, coaches, parents and sporting federations with the necessary information to make decisions regarding the use of mouthguards. It is strongly recommended that protective eyewear should be made mandatory.