Bengt Saltin knew very well the history and work of the giants whose shoulders he was standing upon, such as August Krogh and Johannes Lindhard. He was basically a physiologist interested in physical activity and exercise, particularly in the cardiovascular and muscular responses. Some of his major original contributions were (a) the human muscle model in terms of the one-legged, knee extensor quantifying work by the high-precision Krogh ergometer and, using this, challenging Krogh's proposed autoregulation of capillary blood flow during exercise; (b) the electrolyte fluxes quantification on an intra- and extra-cellular level in human muscle during exercise to reveal such changes as possible fatigue mechanisms; and (c) the evidence presented that underlined the health-enhancing effect of physical exercise training from bedside to workplace.
The problems of catering control various client groups during the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games of 2014 in Sochi is one of the priorities of the sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population during mass events. The data on the order of nutrition of guests and participants of the games, control of food items, sanitary and microbiological monitoring of drinking water, food raw materials and products are presented. It is noted that the ongoing supervisory activities contributed to the sanitary and epidemiological well-being during the Games. The purpose of this study was to lighting modern achievements in the field of nutrition and food microbiology in the period of the Olympic Games and the determination of their value to the further improvement and use at when conducting mass gatherings.
The practice of enhancing athletic performance through foreign substances was known from the earliest Olympic games. In 1967, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) established a Medical Commission responsible for developing a list of prohibited substances and methods. Drug tests were first introduced at the Olympic winter games in Grenoble and at the summer games in Mexico City in 1968. In February 1999, the IOC convened the World Conference on Doping in Sport in Lausanne, Switzerland. The Lausanne Declaration on Doping in Sport recommended creation of an International Anti-Doping Agency. The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) was formed in Lausanne, Switzerland on the basis of equal representation from the Olympic movement and public authorities. One of the mandates of WADA was to harmonize the Olympic antidoping code and develop a single code applicable and acceptable for all stakeholders. The world antidoping code developed by WADA included creation of several international standards (IS). The purpose of each IS was harmonization among antidoping organizations. The ISs were developed for laboratories, testing, the prohibited list, and for therapeutic use exemptions (TUE). The objective of this manuscript is to present a brief history of doping in sport and describe creation of WADA in 1999. The components of the World Anti-Doping code (in particular, the Therapeutic Use Exclusion program or TUE) is described. The WADA code defines a TUE as "permission to use, for therapeutic purposes, a drug or drugs which are otherwise prohibited in sporting competition." Experiences of the Canadian Centre for Ethics in Sport Doping Control Review Board are presented because this national TUE committee has been operational for over 12 years. The challenge of developing a rigorous global antidoping program requires acceptance of doping as a problem by sport organizations, athletes, and public authorities. Individual stakeholders must be prepared to preserve the values of sport, which means free from doping. This will require vigilance by all interested parties for the benefit of elite athletes and society overall.
Since time immemorial authors have noticed the usefulness of physical activity. In the 18th century C von Linné was a spokesman for bodily exercise, and in the beginning of the 19th century P. H . Ling shaped the Swedish gymnastics and founded the Gymnastiska Centralinstitutet in 1813. He aimed at harmonious bodies according to the models of the classic antiquity. Many physicians, I. and F. Holmgren saw the value of the gymnastics. Completing the Ling gymnastics, there was a growing interest in physical performance, i.e., athletics. Above all, the contributions of the officer V. Balck, culminating at the olympic games in Stockholm 1912, made athletics a national movement. Since 1913 it receives an annual economic support from the state. Some physicians feared from overexertion in athletics but they appreciated physical performance. However, they demanded that you should be wholly full-grown prior to great exortions. An important part of the Ling program was remedial gymnastics which was more and more estimated after P. Haglund had asserted its value. T. Sjöstrand's studies became a good basis for evaluating the effect of physical training in both healthy and sick persons. It was not until the 1950s that the first studies, later confirmed, gave holds for the view that physical training was good for public health. But the average life span does not seem to be influenced by physical activities. Now and then training had earlier been used as therapy for disparate sorts of diseases but most rationally for disturbed functions of the locomotor system. Training became an important part of medical rehabilitation only after the second world war. Gymnastics and athletics at school have always had a solid support by physicians. The subject has nowadays so few hours that it cannot result in safe training habits for the future.
One of the most enduring symbols of the Olympics is the torch or flame, an icon of peace and sportsmanship that has its roots in Ancient Greece. According to the Creed of the Olympics: "The important thing in the Games is not winning, but taking part. The essential thing is not conquering. but fighting well." The modern Olympic Games (1896-2000) have been heavy laden with controversy, as athletes have abused performance enhancing drugs to thrust themselves into the limelight in search of gold. It was not until 1967 that the International Olympic Medical Commission began banning drugs. Full-scale drug testing was instituted in 1972.: Retrospective review of modern summer and winter Olympics Game sources (1896-2002) was done for documentation of drug abuse, drug-related overdoses, and positive drug screens. Data were collected for the type of drug documented. the athlete's name, their country of origin, and Olympic event. Seventy cases were identified. The most common class of agents were steroids (29), followed by stimulants (22), diuretics (7), beta-2 agonists (2), and beta blockers (1). Alcohol and marijuana, while not historically prohibited, have been outlawed by several individual sport federations. Toxicities of these 2 agents were most likely under-reported. Countries of origin of individual athletes included Bulgaria (7), USA (7), Sweden (4), Spain (4), Japan (2), Poland (2), Greece (2), Canada (2), Hungary (2), Russia (2), Austria (2), and Great Britain, Norway, Romania, Armenian, and Latvian, each with 1. The most common Olympic events in which drug abuse was documented were weightlifting (25), trackand field (12), skiing (5), wrestling (5), volleyball (3), modern pentathlon (3), cycling (2), swimming (2), gymnastics (1), and rowing (1). As athletic pressures and financial gains of the Olympic Games heighten, more toxicities are likely to occur despite attempts at restricting performance-enhancing drugs.