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11 records – page 1 of 2.

Airborne molds and actinomycetes in the work environment of farmer's lung patients in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature240676
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 1984 Apr;10(2):115-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1984
Author
M H Kotimaa
K H Husman
E O Terho
M H Mustonen
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 1984 Apr;10(2):115-9
Date
Apr-1984
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Microbiology
Aspergillus - isolation & purification
Environmental Exposure
Farmer's Lung - etiology - microbiology
Finland
Humans
Microbiological Techniques - instrumentation
Micromonosporaceae - isolation & purification
Specimen Handling - instrumentation
Spores, Fungal - isolation & purification
Temperature
Abstract
Occurrence of molds and actinomycetes in the breathing zone of farmers during the handling of hay, straw, or grain was studied with the use of an Andersen sampler on 35 farms in Finland. On 24 farms there was a person with recently diagnosed farmer's lung disease, and on 11 farms people were free of the disease. The total spore concentration and the concentrations of the spores of Thermoactinomyces (T) vulgaris, Micropolyspora (M) faeni, and Aspergillus (A) umbrosus were statistically significantly higher on the farms of patients with farmer's lung than on the disease-free farms. The mean proportions of the spores of thermotolerant and thermophilic microbes were greater on the farms of farmer's lung patients than on the reference farms. T vulgaris was the predominant actinomycete species. Both T vulgaris and A umbrosus were found on all farms of farmer's lung patients, but M faeni on only about half of such farms. The findings match the results of previous microbiological analyses of Finnish moldy hay and serological analyses of Finnish farmer's lung patients. It seems that T vulgaris, not M faeni, may be the main causative agent of farmer's lung in Finland. The possible etiologic role of A umbrosus requires further investigation. Because the farmers often failed to identify the moldiness of the plant material in contrast to researchers, it might be possible, through training, to improve farmers' ability to identify moldiness.
PubMed ID
6382592 View in PubMed
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Fungal Fragments and Fungal Aerosol Composition in Sawmills.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature301348
Source
Ann Work Expo Health. 2018 May 28; 62(5):559-570
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
May-28-2018
Author
Komlavi Anani Afanou
Wijnand Eduard
Helle Birgit Laier Johnsen
Anne Straumfors
Author Affiliation
Department of Chemical and Biological Work Environment, STAMI National Institute of Occupational Health, Oslo, Norway.
Source
Ann Work Expo Health. 2018 May 28; 62(5):559-570
Date
May-28-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Aerosols - analysis
Air Microbiology
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Fungi - isolation & purification
Humans
Manufacturing Industry
Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
Norway
Occupational Exposure - analysis
Seasons
Spores, Fungal - isolation & purification
Workplace
Abstract
Assessment of exposure to fungi has commonly been limited to fungal spore measurements that have shown associations between fungi and development or exacerbation of different airway diseases. Because large numbers of submicronic fragments can be aerosolized from fungal cultures under laboratory conditions, it has been suggested that fungal exposure is more complex and higher than that commonly revealed by spore measurements. However, the assessment of fungal fragments in complex environmental matrix remain limited due to methodological challenges. With a recently developed immunolabeling method for field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), we could assess the complex composition of fungal aerosols present in personal thoracic samples collected from two Norwegian sawmills. We found that large fungal fragments (length >1 µm) dominated the fungal aerosols indicating that the traditional monitoring approach of spores severely underestimate fungal exposure. The composition of fungal aerosols comprised in average 9% submicronic fragments, 62% large fragments, and 29% spores. The average concentrations of large and submicronic fragments (0.2-1 µm) were 3 × 105 and 0.6 × 105 particles m-3, respectively, and correlated weakly with spores (1.4 × 105 particles m-3). The levels of fragments were 2.6 times higher than the average spore concentration that was close to the proposed hazardous level of 105 spores per m3. The season influenced significantly the fungal aerosol concentrations but not the composition. Furthermore, the ratio of spores in the heterogeneous fungal aerosol composition was significantly higher in saw departments as compared to sorting of green timber departments where the fungal fragments were most prevalent. Being the dominating particles of fungal aerosols in sawmills, fungal fragments should be included in exposure-response studies to elucidate their importance for health impairments. Likewise, the use of fungal aerosol composition in such studies should be considered.
PubMed ID
29846519 View in PubMed
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Influence of outdoor aeroallergens on hospitalization for asthma in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature181612
Source
J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004 Feb;113(2):303-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2004
Author
Robert E Dales
Sabit Cakmak
Stan Judek
Tom Dann
Frances Coates
Jeffrey R Brook
Richard T Burnett
Author Affiliation
University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Source
J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004 Feb;113(2):303-6
Date
Feb-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Air Pollutants - analysis
Allergens - adverse effects - analysis
Asthma - epidemiology - etiology
Canada - epidemiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Hospitalization - trends
Humans
Poaceae - adverse effects
Pollen - adverse effects
Seasons
Spores, Fungal - isolation & purification
Trees - adverse effects
Abstract
The risk of hospitalization for asthma caused by outdoor aeroallergens is largely unknown.
The objective of this study was to determine the association between changes in outdoor aeroallergens and hospitalizations for asthma from the Pacific coast to the Atlantic coast of Canada.
A daily time series analysis was done to test the association between daily changes in aeroallergens and daily changes in hospitalizations for asthma during a 7-year period between 1993 and 2000 in 10 of the largest cities in Canada. Results were adjusted for long-term trends, day of the week, climate, and air pollution.
A daily increase, equivalent to the mean value of each allergen, was associated with the following percentage increase in asthma hospitalizations: 3.3% (95% CI, 2.3 to 4.1) for basidiomycetes, 3.1% (95% CI, 2.8 to 5.7) for ascomycetes, 3.2% (95% CI, 1.6 to 4.8) for deuteromycetes, 3.0% (95% CI, 1.1 to 4.9) for weeds, 2.9% (95% CI, 0.9 to 5.0) for trees, and 2.0% (95% CI, 1.1 to 2.8) for grasses. After accounting for the independent effects of trees and ozone, the combination of the 2 was associated with an additional 0.22% increase in admissions averaged across cities (P
Notes
Comment In: J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005 Feb;115(2):426-7; author reply 42715696111
PubMed ID
14767446 View in PubMed
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Integrative Approach for the Reliable Detection and Specific Identification of the Microsporidium Loma morhua in Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature284005
Source
J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2017 Jan;64(1):67-77
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2017
Author
Aaron P Frenette
Matthías Eydal
Haakon Hansen
Michael D B Burt
Michael S Duffy
Source
J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2017 Jan;64(1):67-77
Date
Jan-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
DNA, Fungal - isolation & purification
DNA, Ribosomal - genetics
Fish Diseases - microbiology
Gadus morhua - microbiology
Genome, Fungal
Gills - microbiology
Iceland
Loma - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Microsporidiosis - microbiology - veterinary
Norway
Prevalence
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Spleen - microbiology
Spores, Fungal - isolation & purification
Abstract
Microsporidia are fungal parasites that infect diverse invertebrate and vertebrate hosts. Finfish aquaculture supports epizootics due to high host density and the high biotic potential of these parasites. Reliable methods for parasite detection and identification are a necessary precursor to empirical assessment of strategies to mitigate the effects of these pathogens during aquaculture. We developed an integrative approach to detect and identify Loma morhua infecting Atlantic cod. We show that the spleen is more reliable than the commonly presumed gills as best organ for parasite detection in spite of substantial morphological plasticity in xenoma complexes. We developed rDNA primers with 100% sensitivity in detecting L. morhua and with utility in distinguishing some congeneric Loma species. ITS sequencing is necessary to distinguish L. morhua from other congeneric microsporidia due to intraspecific nucleotide variation. 64% of L. morhua ITS variants from Atlantic cod have a 9-nucleotide motif that distinguishes it from Loma spp. infecting non-Gadus hosts. The remaining 36% of ITS variants from Atlantic cod are distinguished from currently represented Loma spp., particularly those infecting Gadus hosts, based on a 14-nucleotide motif. This research approach is amenable to developing templates in support of reliable detection and identification of other microsporidian parasites in fishes.
PubMed ID
27317934 View in PubMed
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Microbiological and serological studies of farmers' lung in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature247746
Source
Clin Allergy. 1979 Jan;9(1):43-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1979
Author
E O Terho
J. Lacey
Source
Clin Allergy. 1979 Jan;9(1):43-52
Date
Jan-1979
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Antigens, Bacterial
Aspergillus - isolation & purification
Farmer's Lung - immunology - microbiology
Female
Finland
Humans
Male
Micromonosporaceae - immunology
Middle Aged
Penicillium - isolation & purification
Precipitins - isolation & purification
Spores, Fungal - isolation & purification
Abstract
Sera from few Finnish patients with clinical farmers' lung react in precipitin tests with extracts of the thermophilic actinomycetes that commonly cause the disease elsewhere. Hays associated with the disease in Finland showed less evidence of spontaneous heating and contained fewer actinomycete spores than British hays. Only Thermoactinomyces vulgaris was sometimes abundant. Some species of mesophilic fungi were more abundant than in Britain and one, Aspergillus umbrosus, reacted with most sera from farmers' lung patients in precipitin tests. A panel of antigens, including thermophilic actinomycetes, A. umbrosus and other species of the Aspergillus glaucus group, is recommended for screening farmers' lung sera.
PubMed ID
421335 View in PubMed
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Morphological and molecular identification of three new species of Tomentella from Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297887
Source
Mycologia. 2018 Jul-Aug; 110(4):677-691
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Author
Xu Lu
Kari Steffen
Hai-Sheng Yuan
Author Affiliation
a CAS Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Shenyang 110164 , People's Republic of China.
Source
Mycologia. 2018 Jul-Aug; 110(4):677-691
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Basidiomycota - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Bayes Theorem
DNA, Fungal - genetics
DNA, Ribosomal - genetics
DNA, Ribosomal Spacer - genetics
Finland
Fruiting Bodies, Fungal - isolation & purification - ultrastructure
Hyphae - ultrastructure
Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
Phylogeny
Spores, Fungal - isolation & purification - ultrastructure
Abstract
Three new species of Tomentella (Thelephorales) from Finland, T. globosa, T. lammiensis, and T. longisterigmata, are described and illustrated with morphological characteristics and nuc rDNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 sequences. T. globosa is characterized by mucedinoid, pale to dark brown basidiocarps adherent to the substrate, generative hyphae with clamps and rarely with simple septa, and echinulate, globose basidiospores (echinuli up to 1.5 µm long). T. lammiensis is characterized by mucedinoid, oxide yellow to golden brown basidiocarps adherent to the substrate, generative hyphae with clamps and rarely with simple septa, and echinulate, ellipsoid, triangular, or lobbed basidiospores (echinuli up to 2 µm long). T. longisterigmata is characterized by mucedinoid, dark brown to chestnut basidiocarps separable from the substrate, generative hyphae clamped and rarely with simple septa, the long basidial sterigmata (7-11 µm long), and echinulate, globose basidiospores (echinuli up to 2 µm long). An absence of rhizomorphs and cystidia is their common morphological feature. Molecular analyses by maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, and Bayesian analyses confirm the phylogenetic position of these three new species. The discriminating characters of these new species and their closely related species are discussed in this study, and a key to the species from Finland is provided.
PubMed ID
30081774 View in PubMed
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Organic dust toxic syndrome at a grass seed plant caused by exposure to high concentrations of bioaerosols.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature124726
Source
Ann Occup Hyg. 2012 Aug;56(7):776-88
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2012
Author
Anne M Madsen
Kira Tendal
Vivi Schlünssen
Ivar Heltberg
Author Affiliation
The National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Lersø Parkallé 105, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark. amm@nrcwe.dk
Source
Ann Occup Hyg. 2012 Aug;56(7):776-88
Date
Aug-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aerosols
Agricultural Workers' Diseases - etiology
Air Pollutants, Occupational - toxicity
Bacteria - isolation & purification
Denmark
Disease Outbreaks
Dust - analysis
Endotoxins - analysis - toxicity
Fungi - isolation & purification
Humans
Inhalation Exposure - adverse effects - analysis
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects - analysis
Poaceae - toxicity
Seeds - toxicity
Spores, Fungal - isolation & purification
Syndrome
Abstract
We describe an outbreak of sudden health problems in workers at a Danish grass seed plant after exposure to a particularly dusty lot of grass seeds. The seeds are called problematic seeds. The association between development of organic dust toxic syndrome (ODTS) and the handling of grass seeds causing exposure was assessed in a four-step model: (i) identification of exposure source, (ii) characterization of the emission of bioaerosols from the problematic and reference seeds, (iii) personal and stationary exposure measurement at the plant and (iv) repeated health examinations. The grass seeds were identified as the exposure source; the emissions of some bioaerosol components were up to 10(7) times higher from the problematic seeds than from reference seeds. Cleaning of the seeds was not enough to sufficiently reduce the high emission from the problematic seeds. Emission in terms of dust was 3.4 times as high from the problematic cleaned seeds as from cleaned reference seeds. The personal exposure reached 3 × 10(5) endotoxin units m(-3), 1 × 10(6) colony-forming units (cfu) of thermophilic actinomycetes m(-3), 8 × 10(5) cfu of Aspergillus fumigatus m(-3) and 9 × 10(6) hyphal fragments m(-3). Several workers working with the problematic seeds had symptoms consistent with ODTS. The most severe symptoms were found for the workers performing the tasks causing highest exposure. Respiratory airway protection proved efficient to avoid development of ODTS. Work with reference seeds did not cause workers to develop ODTS. Exposure was during work with the problematic seeds higher than suggested occupational exposure limits but lower than in studies where researchers for some minutes have repeated a single task expected to cause ODTS. In this study, many different bioaerosol components were measured during a whole working day. We cannot know, whether it is the combination of different bioaerosol components or a single component which is responsible for the development of ODTS. In conclusion, workers developed specific health symptoms due to the high bioaerosol exposure and were diagnosed with ODTS. Exposure to high concentrations of endotoxin, actinomycetes, fungi, hyphal fragments, ß-glucan, and A. fumigatus occurred when working with a dusty lot of grass seed. Suspicion should be elicited by seeds stored without being properly dried and by seeds producing more dust than usually.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22553153 View in PubMed
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Respiratory disorders among Icelandic farmers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature39030
Source
Eur J Respir Dis Suppl. 1987;154:15-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
1987
Author
V. Rafnsson
L. Belin
Author Affiliation
Administration of Occupational Safety and Health, Reykjavik, Iceland.
Source
Eur J Respir Dis Suppl. 1987;154:15-21
Date
1987
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Antibodies, Fungal - analysis
Child
Farmer's Lung - epidemiology - immunology - microbiology
Female
Humans
Iceland
Male
Spores, Fungal - isolation & purification
PubMed ID
3480826 View in PubMed
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Viable fungi in indoor air in homes and schools in the Sør-Varanger community during winter.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature35101
Source
Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 1995 Nov;6(4):181-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1995
Author
L K Dotterud
L H Vorland
E S Falk
Author Affiliation
Department of Dermatology, Tromsø University, Norway.
Source
Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 1995 Nov;6(4):181-6
Date
Nov-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollution, Indoor - adverse effects
Allergens - immunology
Animals
Child
Cold Climate - adverse effects
Dust - adverse effects
Housing
Humans
Mites - immunology
Norway
Schools
Seasons
Spores, Fungal - isolation & purification
Abstract
The present study investigated the content of fungal aerospores in homes and schools of house-dust-mite (HDM)-sensitized and control children in a subarctic area. During winter, airborne microfungi were collected from the homes and schools of 19 HDM-sensitized children and 19 nonatopic controls, all living in the community of Sør-Varanger, northern Norway. The samples were cultivated and microfungal growth was identified microscopically. Indoor humidity, temperature, and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations were measured. Housing conditions and sociodemographic and symptom data were obtained by a questionnaire. Penicillium was the most common microfungus in both homes and schools, followed by various yeasts, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, and Mucor. The number of infected homes was equal in the HDM-sensitized group and the control group, but aerospore counts were higher in the HDM-sensitized group than in the control group. The lowest aerospore counts were found in the schools. High aerospore counts also appeared to be related to high indoor humidity. The keeping of pets and damp indoor conditions were more frequent in homes of HDM-sensitized children than in the control group, whereas parental smoking and carpeting occurred with equal frequency in both groups. This indicates that no allergy sanitation measures had been undertaken, especially in the homes of the HDM-sensitized children.
PubMed ID
8822389 View in PubMed
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11 records – page 1 of 2.