Danish Pain Research Center, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; Department of Neurosurgery, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; Department of Anesthesiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; ITmedico, Aarhus, Denmark; Perinatal Epidemiology Research Unit, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; and Department of Neurology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.
?? Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is increasingly gaining widespread use as a treatment for chronic pain. A widely used electronic registry could play a pivotal role in improving this complex and cost-?intensive treatment. We aimed to construct a comprehensive, universally available data base for SCS.
?? The design considerations behind a new online data base for SCS are presented; basic structure, technical issues, research applications, and future perspectives are described.
?? The Aarhus Neuromodulation Database covers core SCS treatment parameters, including procedure-?related details and complications, and features recording of key success parameters such as pain intensity, work status, and quality of life. It combines easy access to patient information with exhaustive data extraction options, and it can readily be adapted and expanded to suit different needs, including other neuromodulation treatment modalities.
?? We believe that the data base described in this article offers a powerful and versatile data collection tool suited for both clinicians and researchers in the field. The basic data base structure is immediately available on a no?-cost basis, and we invite our colleagues to make use of the data base as part of the efforts to further the field of neuromodulation.
Prospective, population-based study. This paper is part of the Stockholm Thessaloniki Acute Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury Study (STATSCIS).
To characterize patient populations and to compare acute management after traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI).
The Greater Thessaloniki region in Greece and the Greater Stockholm region in Sweden.
Inception cohorts with acute TSCI that were hospitalized during the study period, that is September 2006 to October 2007, were identified. Overall, 81 out of 87 cases consented to inclusion in Thessaloniki and 47 out of 49 in Stockholm. Data from Thessaloniki were collected through physical examinations, medical record reviews and communication with TSCI cases and medical teams. Data from Stockholm were retrieved from the Nordic Spinal Cord Injury Registry.
There were no significant differences between study groups with regard to core clinical characteristics. In contrast, there were significant differences in (1) transfer logistics from the scene of trauma to a tertiary-level hospital (number of intermediate admissions, modes of transportation and duration of transfer) and (2) acute key therapeutic interventions, that is, the use of mechanical ventilation (49% in Thessaloniki versus 20% in Stockholm), and performance of tracheostomy (36% in Thessaloniki versus 15% in Stockholm); spinal surgery was performed significantly more often and earlier in Stockholm than in Thessaloniki.
Despite largely similar core clinical characteristics, Stockholm and Thessaloniki cases underwent significantly different acute management, most probably to be attributed to adaptations to the differing regional approaches of care one following a systematic approach of SCI care and the other not.
Although introduced for neurogenic bladder dysfunction, it has been suggested that the artificial somato-autonomic reflex arch alleviates neurogenic bowel dysfunction (NBD). We aimed at evaluating the effects of the reflex arch on NBD.
Ten subjects with supraconal spinal cord injury (SCI) (nine males, median age 46 years) had an anastomosis created between the ventral part of the fifth lumbar or first sacral nerve root and the ventral part of the second sacral nerve root. Standardized assessment of segmental colorectal transit times with radiopaque markers, evaluation of scintigraphic assessed colorectal emptying upon defecation, scintigraphic assessment of colorectal transport during stimulation of the reflex arch, standard anorectal physiology tests and colorectal symptoms were performed at baseline and 18 months after surgery.
No significant change was observed in colorectal emptying upon defecation (median 31% of the rectosigmoid at baseline vs 75% at follow-up, P=0.50), no movement of colorectal contents was observed during stimulation of the reflex arch. Segmental colorectal transit times, anal sphincter pressures and rectal capacity did not change, and no change was seen in NBD score (median 13.5 (baseline) vs 12.5 (follow-up), P=0.51), St Marks fecal incontinence score (4.5 vs 5.0, P=0.36) and Cleveland constipation score (6.0 vs 8.0, P=0.75).
The artificial somato-autonomic reflex arch has no effect on bowel function in subjects with supraconal SCI.
*Department of Neurosurgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville †Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, NYU Hospital for Joint Diseases, New York ‡Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL §Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Utah, Salt Lake City ¶Department of Neurosurgery, University of Kansas, Kansas City ?Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Washington University, St Louis, MO **Department of Neurosurgery, Rush Medical Center, Chicago, IL ††Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA ‡‡Division of Neurosurgery and Spinal Program, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; and §§Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2013 Oct 15;38(22 Suppl 1):S161-70
Post hoc analysis of prospectively collected data.
Development of methods to determine in vivo spinal cord dimensions and application to correlate preoperative alignment, myelopathy, and health-related quality-of-life scores in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM).
CSM is the leading cause of spinal cord dysfunction. The association between cervical alignment, sagittal balance, and myelopathy has not been well characterized.
This was a post hoc analysis of the prospective, multicenter AOSpine North America CSM study. Inclusion criteria for this study required preoperative cervical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neutral sagittal cervical radiography. Techniques for MRI assessment of spinal cord dimensions were developed. Correlations between imaging and health-related quality-of-life scores were assessed.
Fifty-six patients met inclusion criteria (mean age = 55.4 yr). The modified Japanese Orthopedic Association (mJOA) scores correlated with C2-C7 sagittal vertical axis (SVA) (r = -0.282, P = 0.035). Spinal cord volume correlated with cord length (r = 0.472, P
To evaluate the methods of self-reported bladder management, the frequency of urinary tract infection (UTI) and subjective disturbance of bladder problems of all those individuals with traumatic spinal cord lesion (SCL) living in Helsinki area.
: Helsinki, Finland.
A total of 152 persons with SCL were found in the Helsinki area (546 000 inhabitants). A structured questionnaire was sent to all subjects and they were invited to a clinical visit.
The final study-group consisted of 129 (85%) subjects. They were defined into seven specific subgroups of bladder management: 14 (11%) subjects in the normal voiding group, 15 (12%) in the controlled voiding group, 16 (12%) in the clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) group, 30 (23%) in the mixed group, 31 (24%) in the suprapubic tapping group, 16 (12%) in the compression or straining group and seven (5%) in the catheter or conduit group. The frequency of UTI was highest in the mixed group. The bladder management was a biggest bother to the subjects in the compression or straining group.
This prevalence study assesses the self-reported bladder management methods in all the persons with traumatic SCL in the Helsinki area. The subjects who used CIC and other methods for bladder management had more problems than others. These subjects might manage better by using either CIC or suprapubic tapping as the only method for bladder emptying.
The aim of this study was to determine whether there have been epidemiologic changes in acute spinal cord injury. Two groups of patients injured in the same geographic area were compared: the first group of 351 patients was injured between 1947 and 1973; and the second group of 201 patients between 1974 and 1981. The results showed that there were indeed major epidemiologic changes in spinal cord injury between the two study periods. Most importantly, the more recently injured group were younger, arrived sooner, had less severe cord injuries, and higher frequencies of motor vehicle, and sports and recreational accidents, but fewer work-related injuries.
(1) Describe the self-care, productivity and leisure problems identified by individuals with a spinal cord injury (SCI) during rehabilitation, (2) describe the perceived level of satisfaction and performance with self-care, productivity and leisure activities following an SCI, (3) quantify the relationship between the Canadian occupational performance measure (COPM), a client-centred, individualized measure of function, and the functional independence measure (FIM).
Tertiary rehabilitation centre, spinal cord injury unit, GF Strong Rehabilitation Centre, Vancouver, Canada.
Health records from 41 individuals with an SCI admitted between 2000 and 2002 were reviewed. Information was obtained from assessments performed on admission and discharge. Self-care, productivity and leisure problems identified by individuals with an SCI were described and their perceived level of performance and satisfaction was calculated. The relationship between the COPM and the FIM was measured by the Pearson product correlation.
Self-care goals were identified most frequently (79%) followed by productivity (12%) and leisure (9%) goals. The top three problems identified by individuals with an SCI were functional mobility (including transfers and wheelchair use), dressing and grooming. A fair relationship was found between the COPM and the FIM (r between 0.351 and 0.514, P
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To study the causes and the rehabilitation outcome of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) in patients older than 60 years at the time of injury.
Forty-four patients were included.
The American Spinal Injury Association Motor Impairment Scale on admission and at discharge and the Functional Independence Measure Motor subscale at discharge were calculated retrospectively according to the patient records. The causes of injury and treatment were obtained. The MRI-scans in patients with cervical injuries during the last 5 years were evaluated.
Thirty-four patients (77%) were injured after falling from a height, 24 with cervical lesions. Thirty-five patients (80%) had incomplete lesions and they had the best outcome with regard to functional level. MR images of 15 patients with cervical lesions revealed preexisting cervical stenosis in 80%.
A high proportion of the patients had a cervical spinal stenosis and incomplete SCI; most of them regained good function.
Optimal timing of surgery after a traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the most controversial subjects in spine surgery. We assessed the relationship between surgical timing and the occurrence of nonneurologic postoperative complications during acute hospital stay for patients with a traumatic SCI.
A retrospective cohort study was performed in a single institution. Four hundred thirty-one cases of traumatic SCI were reviewed, and postoperative complications were recorded from the medical charts. Patients were compared using two different surgical timing cutoffs (24 hours and 72 hours). Logistic regression analyses were modeled for complication occurrence. The effect of surgical timing on complication rate was adjusted for potential confounding variables such as the level of injury, American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) grade, Injury Severity Score (ISS), age, sex, Charlson Comorbidity Index, and Surgical Invasiveness Index.
Patients operated on earlier were younger, had less comorbidity, had a higher ISS, and were more likely to have a cervical lesion and a complete injury (ASIA A). A reduction in the global rate of complications as well as in the rate of pneumonias and pressure ulcers were predicted by surgery performed earlier than 72 hours and 24 hours. Increasing age, more severe ASIA grade, and cervical lesion as well as increased Charlson Comorbidity Index, ISS, and SII were also statistically related to the occurrence of complications.
This study showed that a shorter surgical delay after a traumatic SCI decreases the rate of complications during the acute phase hospitalization. We suggest that patients with traumatic SCI should be promptly operated on earlier than 24 hours following the injury to reduce complications while optimizing neurologic recovery. If medical or practical reasons preclude timing less than 24 hours, efforts should still be made to perform surgery earlier than 72 hours following the SCI.
Prognostic study, level III; therapeutic/care management study, level IV.
To determine the involvement of comorbidity to outcomes in a cohort of acute mechanical low back pain patients.
Incident low back pain cases (n=7077) in the acute or subacute phase assessed between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2001 were included. Patients were categorized into 1 of 2 groups on the basis of their current medical history: (1) those with at least 1 of 7 medical histories considered (Comorbidity Group, n=539), or (2) those with only low back pain (Back Pain Group, n=6538). Main outcome measures were: change in perceived function and visual analog scale (VAS) pain rating from initial assessment to discharge, and total number of treatment days.
There were no baseline statistically significant differences in VAS pain rating, questionnaire score, or symptom duration between groups. Odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted to reflect age and sex differences between groups. Logistic regression analysis revealed no statistically significant difference for change in functional score (OR=1.002) between groups; there were marginal differences in change in VAS pain rating (OR=1.08) and total number of treatment days (OR=1.006). chi analysis revealed no statistically significant differences in medication use, global pain rating, or pain control ability posttreatment, between groups.
Significant ORs were barely greater than 1.00 and were likely the result of the large sample size. The clinical course for comorbid patients, who may seem more complicated at the start of treatment, is just as favorable.